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THE 



BLOCKADE RUNNEK 




AND 



HER 



CARGO 



Leslie S. Bright 

Archaeology Section 
Division of Archives and History 
North Carolina Deportment of Cultural Resources 
Raieigh.N.C * 

-^ June , 19771 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/blockaderunnermoOObrig 



¥*^^^,h,i 






THE 



BLOCKADE RUNNER 
















AND 



HER 



CARGO 



By 

Leslie S. Bright 

Archaeology Section 
Division of Archives and History 
North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources 
Raleigh,N.C. 

June, 1977 



3 s^^-^b 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



FOREWORD i 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v 

LIST OF PLATES xi 

LIST OF TABLES AND MAP xv 

THE VESSEL 

THE MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 1 

BLOCKADE RUNNING AND WILMINGTON 1 

THE MODERN GREECE PRIOR TO THE SINKING 3 

THE SINKING OF THE MODERN GREECE 6 

SALVAGE EFFORTS IN 1862 12 

THE 1962 RECOVERY OF ARTIFACTS 19 

STORAGE AND PRESERVATION OF ARTIFACTS 22 

THE INVENTORY 

SHIP 'S EQUIPMENT AND FITTINGS 25 

FIREARMS AND ORDNANCE 49 

BULK MATERIALS 59 

SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS 73 

TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS 83 

EDGED WEAPONS AND POCKETKNIVES 109 

HOUSEWARES 133 

HARDWARE 149 

CONTAINERS 155 

MISCELLANEOUS 161 

THE PRESERVATION 

A SUMMARY OF THE METHODS USED IN PRESERVING THE 

ARTIFACTS RECOVERED FROM THE MODERN GREECE 163 

ORGANIC 165 

NONFERROUS 167 

FERROUS 169 

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 

APPENDIX I: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF .577 CALIBER 

ENFIELD BULLET MEASUREMENTS 175 

APPENDIX II: ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF SHEATH 

TIPS AND THROATS 177 

APPENDIX III: ARTIFACTS SUPPOSEDLY RECOVERED 

FROM THE MODERN GREECE BUT OF QUESTIONABLE 

ORIGINS 179 

ADDENDUM 187 

GLOSSARY OF MANUFACTURER'S MARKINGS 189 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 195 

INDEX 205 



FOREWORD 

Few aspects of the American Civil War hold a more 
compelling interest than the history of the blockade run- 
ners who tried the Federal blockade of the Southern ports. 
This history is filled with romantic tales of valuable car- 
goes brought through with great bravery to a Confederacy 
starved by war. Wrecks like the MODERN GREECE bear a 
silent witness to those vessels that did not make it. 

The cargoes of the blockade runners have long been 
known; but until 1962 when the Navy divers found the MOD- 
ERN GREECE and began an operation which brought to shore 
most of the materials inventoried in this publication, no 
vessel had been salvaged so extensively. This publication 
is an inventory of all the materials recovered from the 
MODERN GREECE. These are of interest to the professional, 
serious student, collector, and amateur who wants to know 
more of the vessels and goods of the mid-nineteenth cen- 
tury that came through the Federal blockade. 

The arrangement of the work itself is aimed at 
these interests. The first section is an overview of the 
history of the vessel from her building to her present day 
protected status. This also frames her within the general 
history of blockade running so that the value of her con- 
tents might be better understood. 

The second portion, the inventory itself, is in the 
form of a modified encyclopedia. The text is set up to 
give ready access to desired data. The articles are al- 
phabetically arranged based upon their use: hardware, 
housewares, surgical instruments, etc. This allows the 
reader to review all the items of a specific type without 
having to scramble through the entire volume. The Fort 
Fisher Preservation Laboratory inventory number is placed 
next to each article entry for ease in using the publica- 
tion relative to the Laboratory's collection. The number 
recovered of each type of artifact is given to allow the 
reader to get for himself an accurate impression of the 
cargo contents and the Laboratory's collection. This also 
points out the significance of unique items. Basic measure- 
ments are given to work in conjunction with the scale draw- 
ings. These give a clear picture of the actual size of the 
artifacts. Drawings, descriptions, and information rela- 
tive to the markings found on the artifacts are also in- 
cluded. The descriptions of the artifacts are as brief 
as possible. In the interest of thoroughness, all the 
known different types of similar artifacts are illustrated. 



ii Foreword 

It is important for the reader to know the condition 
of the artifacts. This enables him to better know what to 
expect for study purposes. Deviation in measurement is 
often explained by differences in condition. This is of 
particular importance for the student comparing the MODERN 
GREECE artifact collection with another of similar items. 
The poor condition of some artifacts accounts for the in- 
complete markings found on some artifacts. It is hard to 
gather data about a manufacturer's marking from an artifact 
either barely visible due to concretion or totally corroded. 

Finally, photographic plates are included to aid in 
depicting an artifact having details or dimensions that 
are not clearly shown solely by line drawings. In these 
the artifacts are either placed on a grid or have a scale 
positioned nearby to give an indication of the size. 

The third section includes technical information 
about the methods used in preserving the artifacts, for 
without preservation the artifacts could not be exhibited 
for any period of time without disintegrating. They would 
also not be available for study. 

Any project of the size and scope of this one is not 
just done at the moment, nor is it the work of just one or 
even a few people. The first phase of any such project is 
the collection of data. With this publication it has been 
the result of an on-going operation begun with the recovery 
of the artifacts. The staff of the Fort Fisher Preservation 
Laboratory has kept notes and photographs of the artifacts 
since the original cleaning and preservation began. The 
conservators responsible for this were Leslie S. Bright, the 
late John D. Miller, and Samuel P. Townsend. The concentrated 
effort to put together this publication was begun in 1975 
when additional staff became available through the Compre- 
hensive Employment Training Act (CETA), This enabled the 
Laboratory to employ the artists and staff necessary to pro- 
duce a publication of this size and scope. 

Prior to the actual writing all of the necesary data 
had to be accumulated. The unpreserved artifacts were re- 
counted to verify the inventory and thoroughly examined for 
markings not already noted by the conservators. Further all 
of the early notes were verified for accuracy. This entail- 
ed numerous hours for the staff in the wet and dry storage 
facilities recording measurements, quantities, and selecting 
artifacts to be illustrated. In each instance the best 
preserved sample of a given type of artifact is illustrated, 
for it shows the artifact most nearly in its original con- 
dition, Paul Longnecker, Jeff L. Starling, Mark F. Weaver, 
and George E. Williams did this often grimy and wet portion 



Foreword iii 



of the data gathering. Any new information was placed on 
cards and readied for the actual writing and illustrating. 
Preliminary scale drawings of the artifacts were done by 
Donald R, Jackson, Anna Partusch, Johnny R. Sneed, and Mar- 
tha L. Wilson. The final drawings used in the publication 
were done by Donald R. Jackson and Johnny R. Sneed. Photo- 
graphs were made of all items to aid the illustrators and 
for the actual publication plates. These were made by 
Jerry A. Morrison. 

Once all the data was gathered and the illustrations 
made* the format was decided upon. During its development 
the publication had three editors who worked under the 
supervision of Leslie S. Bright at the Fort Fisher Preser- 
vation Laboratory. They were Sandra E. Croom, Jane L. 
Spellman, and Amanda G. Watlington. Sandra Croom and 
Jane Spellman did the original chapter organization and 
wrote a number of artifact descriptions. Martha L. Wilson 
assisted during this phase. Amanda G. Watlington devised 
the final format, wrote the historical portion, and edited 
the entire work. 

Over the years a number of different people have 
been involved in the typing and clerical work connected 
with the project. They were Elizabeth M. Benbow, Margaret 
A. Brown, Patty D. Farmer, Wayne Funderburk, Amy L. Harris, 
and Rhonda King. Cynthia S. Elliott assisted in preparing 
the copy for final typing. Margaret M. Godber typed the 
final copy. 

Special thanks are owed to a number of people out- 
side the Fort Fisher Preservation Laboratory who have as- 
sisted the project. The late brothers Charles and John 
Foard with the Blockade Runner Museum, Carolina Beach, 
North Carolina have been of continuous help with their vast 
knowledge of the locale and its history. Two other local 
enthusiasts, A.E. Kure and W. Hall Watters, lent a hand with 
the initial recovery and have sustained an interest in the 
vessel. Leo Vereen with the Francis L. LaQue Corrosion 
Laboratory of the International Nickel Company, Inc. , 
Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, has answered numerous 
metallurgical questions. William R. Williamson answered 
questions regarding the knives and edged weapons. With- 
out the assistance of these people the volume would be 
considerably less complete. 

Various libraries both in this country and abroad 
have rendered enthusiastic assistance with the project. 
The overseas libraries have been especially helpful in 



iv Foreword 

adding to our knowledge of the manufacturers whose wares 
were aboard the MODERN GREECE. The staff of these libraries 
deserve special thanks: University of North Carolina at 
Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina; Mariners Museum, 
Newport News, Virginia; Brown, Pic ton, and Hornby Libraries, 
Liverpool, England; Maritime History Group, Memorial Uni- 
versity, Newfoundland, Canada; Middlesbrough Borough Coun- 
cil, Middlesborough, England; and Sheffield City Libraries, 
Sheffield, England. 

In addition, thanks are offered to Stanley A. South, 
who provided the Archaeology Section with the photographs 
of the 1962 recovery operation which appear in the publi- - 
cation. 

Finally the entire project would not have been pos- 
sible without the support of the Archaeology Section, Depart- 
ment of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History 
of the State of North Carolina. It is with a debt of grati- 
tude to all these people named above and any others whose 
names may have been inadvertently left out that the staff 
at the Fort Fisher Preservation Laboratory presents this 
volume in the hope that it will benefit students and pro- 
fessionals for years to come. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Ship^s Equipment and Fittings 

1. Anchor, large 25 

2. Anchor, small 26 

3. Assembly, steam pressure 27 

4. Assembly, unidentified 29 

5. Assembly, valve 29 

6. Binnacle 30 

7. Bitt 31 

8. Block, large 32 

9. Block, small 33 

10. Box, bilge strainer 34 

11. Capstan, bell shaped 35 

12. Capstan, hour glass 35 

13. Capstan, comparative views 36 

14. Chain, section 37 

15. Chain, stud link 37 

16. Counterbalance 38 

17. Coupling hose 39 

18. Davit 39 

19. Gear, worm 40 

20. Pipe, lead 41 

21. Porthole 42 

22. Portlight 43 

23. Racks, towel 44 

24. Detail of wall mounts of single unit 
towel rack 45 

25. Valve, check 45 

26. Valve, spigot 46-47 

27. Wheel, ship^s 47 

28. Windlass 48 

Firearms and Ordnance 



29. Bolt, 12 pounder Whitworth 49 

30. Whitworth packing case 49 

31. Enfield rifle bullet 50 

32. Caps, percussion 51 

33. Mold, Enfield bullet 52 

34. Pistol, Unwin and Rodger s knife 53 

35. Carbine, Tower Enfield 54 

36. Rifle, Tower Enfield 55 



i List of Illustrations 



Firearms and Ordnance (continued) 

37. Butt, center, and forearm fragments 
of Enfield rifle 55 

38. Enfield rifles recovered in cases of 
24 55 

39. Shoulder straps found in rifle cases 56 

40. Rifle case cover 56 

41. Maker's mark found on three Enfields hav- 
ing no brass parts 57 

42. Nipple protector and chain 57 

43. Enfield lock 57 

44. Rifle shipping plug 57 

45. Shot, 12 pounder Whitworth case 58 



Bulk Materials 

46. Ingots, lead 59 

47. Letters, numbers, and marks on lead ingots 60 

48. Letters as they appear on tin ingots 64 

49. Foundry or distributor's marking in relief 
on mold 65 

50. Type I manufacturer's insignia in relief 
on mold 65 

51. Type II manufacturer's insignia 66 

52. Type III manufacturer's insignia 66 

53. Ingot, tin (top view) 67 

54. Ingot, tin (side view) 67 

55. Ingot, tin (bottom view) 67 

56. Tin plated steel sheets with packing case 70 

57. Spool of wire 71 



Surgical Instruments 

58. Depressor, tongue 73 

59. Handle, surgical knife 74 

60. Kit, surgeon's medical 74 

61. Knife, amputation 75 

62. Probe, surgeon's 76 

63. Saw, bone (handle only) 76 

64. Scalpels, folding 77 

65. Scalpels, pocket 78 

66. Scarifier 79 

67. Screw, tourniquet 80 

68. Snips, bone 81 



List of Illustrations vii 
Tools and Implements 

69. Ax 83 

70. Bits, flat drill 84 

71. Chisels cold 85 

72. Chisel, wood (Type I) 87 

73. Chisel, wood (Type II) 87 

74. Chisels, wood (Type III) 88 

75. Details of maker's marks on wood chisels 89 

76. Dies, pipe 90 

77. Drills, ratchet 91 

78. Keg of files 92 

79. Files 93 

80. Gauge, carpenter's marking 94 

81. Detail of maker's mark on wood gouges 95 

82. Wood gouges in bundle 95 

83. Wood gouges 95 

84. Hammer, cross peen machine 96 

85. Handle, awl 97 

86. Handle, rasp 97 

87. Handsaw 98 

88. Hatchet, broad 99 

89. Star markings (Type I) 99 

90. Star markings (Type II) 100 

91. Maker's mark 100 

92. Hoe (Type l) 100 

93. Hoe (Type II) 101 

94. Farrier's knife 102 

95. Ladles, lead 102 

96. Picks 103 

97. Screwdriver 104 

98. Spokeshave 104 

99. Taps, pipe 105 

100. Threaders, pipe 106 

101. Wrench, crescent 107 

102. Wrench, hammer 107 

103. Wrench, monkey 108 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 

104. Bayonet, Enfield saber 109 

105. Bayonet, hilt detail 109 

106. Enfield triangular bayonet 110 



viii List of Illustrations 

Edged Weapons and Pocketknives (continued) 

107. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 111 

108. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 111 

109. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 112 

110. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 112 

111. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 112 

112. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 113 

113. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 113 

114. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 113 

115. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 114 

116. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 114 

117. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 114 

118. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 115 

119. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 115 

120. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 116 

121. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 116 

122. Bowie knife with one piece hilt 116 

123. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 117 

124. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 117 

125. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 117 

126. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 118 

127. Bowie knife with t^o piece hilt 118 

128. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 118 

129. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 119 

130. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 119 

131. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 119 

132. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 120 

133. Bowie knife with two piece hilt 120 

134. Reconstruction of pike assembly 121 

135. Pikes 121 

136. Bundle of pocketknives 123 

137. Pocketknives 124-127 

138. Sheath, bowie knife 128 

139. Sheath, Enfield saber bayonet 129 

140. Throats, bowie knife sheath 130 

141. Tips, bowie knife sheath 131-132 



Housewares 

142. Manufacturer's markings from Type I 133 

143. Flatiron (Type l) 134 

144. Flatiron (Type II) 134 



List of Illustrations ix 



Housewares (continued) 



145. Flatiron (Type I) with handle intact 135 

146. Fork, serving 136 

147. Table fork (Type I) 137 

148. Concreted bundle of Type I forks and table 
knives 137 

149. Table forks (Type II), two sizes 138 

150. Concreted bundle Type II table knives 140 

151. Table knives 140 

152. Maker's markings on table knives 141 

153. Pan, frying 142 

154. Plate, earthenware 143 

155. Scissors 144 

156. Types of scissors 145 

157. Spoon, serving 146 

158. Tablespoons 147 

159. Teaspoon 148 



Hardware 



160. Bolt with nut 149 

161. Hinges 150 

162. Lock, chest 151 

163. Nails, horseshoe 152 

164. Keg of horseshoe nails 152 

165. Padlock 153 



Containers 



166. Detail showing mold-in numeral 20 on base 
of bottle 155 

167. Bottle, glass whiskey 156 

168. Ceramic fragments 157 

169. Glass fragments 158 

170. Keg, 10 gallon 159 



Miscellaneous 

171. Shoes 161 



X List of Illustrations 

Summary of the Methods Used in Preserving the Artifacts Re- 
covered from the MODERN GREECE 

172. Equipment for electrolytic reduction 171 



Appendix III 

173. Bollard 179 

174. Bowl, gravy 180 

175. Commode, porcelain 181 

176. Gearbox 182 

177. Hooks, grapple 183 

178. Pipe, flanged 184 

179. Pipe, hawse 184 

180. Pipe, vent 185 



Addendum 



181. Hatchet, claw 187 

182. Rasp, wood 188 

183. Detail maker ^s mark on rasp 188 



LIST OF PLATES 



Plate I Following page 24 

A. Salvage boat en route to site 

B. Work aboard salvage boat 

Plate II 

A. Deck of salvage boat 

B. Recovery of anchor 

Plate III 

A. Enfield bullets aboard salvage boat 

B, Lead ingots aboard salvage boat 



Plate IV Following page 48 

A. Fig. 4 Assembly, unidentified 

B. Fig, 6 Binnacle 

C. Fig. 10 Box, bilge strainer 

Plate V 

A. Fig. 26 Valve, spigot 

B. Fig. 28 Windlass 



Plate VI Following page 58 

A. Figs. 29 and 45 Bolt, 12 pounder Whitworth 
Shot, 12 pounder Whitworth case 

B. Fig. 32 Caps, percussion 

C. Fig, 34 Pistol, Unwin and Rodgers knife 

Plate VII 

A. Fig. 38 Enfield rifles recovered in cases of 24 

B. Fig. 40 Rifle case cover 

C. Fig. 41 Maker ^s mark found on 3 Enfield rifles 

Plate VIII Following page 72 

A. Fig. 46 Ingots, lead 

B. Figs. 53, 54, and 55 Ingots, tin 

C. Fig. 56 Tin plated steel sheets with packing case 

D. Fig. 57 Spool of wire 



xxii List of Plates 

Plate IX Following page 82 

A. Figs. 58 and 62 Depressor, tongue, Probe, surgeon's 

B. Fig. 60 Kit, surgeon's medical 

C. Fig. 61 Knife, amputation 

Plate X 

A. Figs. 64 and 65 Scalpels, folding. Scalpels, pocket 

B. Fig. 66 Scarifier 

C. Fig. 67 Screw, tourniquet 



Plate XI Following page 108 

A. Figs. 69 and 88 Ax, Hatchet 

B. Figs. 72, 73, and 74 Chisels - Type I, II, III 

C. Figs. 76 and 99 Dies, pipe. Taps, pipe 

D. Fig. 77 Drill, ratchet 

Plate XII 

A. Fig. 78 Keg of files 

B. Fig. 83 Wood gouges 

C. Fig. 85 Handle, a,wl 

D. Fig. 93 Hoe 

Plate XIII 

A. Fig. 94 Knife, farrier's 

B. Fig. 96 Picks 

C. Fig. 97 Screwdriver 

D. Figs. 101, 102, and 103 Wrenches (three types) 



Plate XIV Following page 132 

A. Figs. 104 and 139 Bayonet, Enfield saber and sheath 

B. Fig. 106 Enfield triangular bayonets 

C. Figs. 119 and 133 Bowie knives 

D. Fig. 135 Pike 

Plate XV 

A. Fig. 137 Pocketknives 

B. Figs. 132 and 138 Bowie knife with sheath 



Plate XVI Following page 148 

A. Fig. 145 Type I flatiron with handle 

B. Figs. 146 and 157 Fork, serving and Spoon, serving 



List of Plates xxiii 



Plate XVII Following page 148 

A. Figs. 149, 151, and 159 Type II table forks, table 
knife, and teaspoons 

B. Fig. 155 Scissors 

C. Fig. 158 Tablespoons 



Plate XVIII Following page 154 

A, Fig. 161 Hinges 

B, Fig. 168 Ceramic fragments 

C, Fig. 168 Ceramic fragments 



Plate XIX Following page 174 

A. Manual cleaning 

B. Impregnation 

C. Electrolysis 

Plate XX 

A. Neutralization 

B. Drying 

C. Coating 

D. Storage 



Plate XXI Following page 177 

A. Energy dispersive analysis of sheath tip 

B. Energy dispersive analysis of sheath throat (labeled 
guard on photograph) 



LIST OF TABLES AND MAP 



Table I: Dimensions, weights, and locations of markings on 
lead ingots 60 



Table II: Dimensions, weights, and markings of tin ingots... 68 



Map I: Wreck of the MODERN GREECE at approach to Lower 

Cape Fear River 11 



THE VESSEL 




THE MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 



On June 27, 1862, the British-owned steamer MODERN 
GREECE ran aground off the North Carolina coast near Fort 
Fisher while attempting to run the Federal blockade. The 
vessel was loaded with munitions, hardware, and other ma- 
terials bound for the Confederate States. Although the 
crew was able to salvage some of the cargo, the ship was 
blown up with much of its cargo still aboard. The wreck 
was well known for many years, but became accessible to 
divers only in 1962 when a severe storm removed much of 
the sand which had covered the vessel. The MODERN GREECE 
sank during the heyday of blockade running and now lies 
in an area littered with other wrecks of ships lost in 
trying to run the blockade at Wilmington. The cargo of 
the MODERN GREECE is a good example of the type of goods 
that were brought through the blockade during this period. 
For this reason the ship, the cargo, the sinking, and ef- 
forts at salvage bear consideration. 



BLOCKADE RUNNING AND WILMINGTON 

Thirteen days after the evacuation of Fort Sumter, 
President Lincoln proclaimed a total blockade of the coast- 
line from Cape Henry to the Mexican border, a distance 
of over 4,000 miles. At first this blockade was sneered 
upon by the Confederates who recognized the difficulties 
involved in enforcing a blockade of this magnitude. The 
Confederate government was slow to react to Lincoln's proc- 
lamation. They made no provision for government supply 
of their armies, for they assumed falsely that the se- 
cession would be peaceful. This lack of governmental 
concern led to the rise of the lucrative private business 
of blockade running. Enormous profits could be made on 
both the inward and outward journeys until the end of 1864 
when the effect of the blockade became more severe. 

Manufactured goods were brought in at exorbitant 
prices; and cotton, desperately needed by English mills, 
was shipped out at equally inflated prices. The sale of 
the inbound cargo itself often brought 500 to 1,000 per- 
cent of its original cost. These enormous profits made 



2 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 



it possible for a shipper to pay for his vessel with two 
runs or even a single run through the blockade. Many- 
vessels, however, made numerous runs. With the possibil- 
ity of enormous profits secured with relatively small 
risk, there was no lack of interest in running the block- 
ade until 1864 when the losses from capture and sinking 
by Federal troops outstripped the profits. 

Since the Confederate government made no attempt 
to regulate the blockade running trade until Marchjl864, 
the whim of the captains and the shippers dictated what 
goods and how they were brought through the blockade. A 
large number of consignments were indeed war materials 
desperately needed by the Confederate armies, but inter- 
mixed with this type of cargo were luxury items which 
would attract high prices while taking up little space 
and weight in shipment. The period of 1862-3, during 
which the ill-fated steamer MODERN GREECE sank, was the 
peak of the lucrative blockade running trade. Her cargo 
is representative of what a ship coming through the block- 
ade at this period might have carried. 

Not all the ports along the 4,000 mile coastline 
were suitable for blockade running. Gideon Welles, U.S. 
Secretary of the Navy, recognized the virtual infeasibil- 
ity of completely blockading the 4,000 mile coastline and 
focused his attention on certain key cities. These cities 
were major Confederate shipping points with accessible 
harbors and reasonable connections to the interior. The 
ten key ports on which he focused his attention were Nor- 
folk, Virginia; Beaufort, New Bern, and Wilmington, North 
Carolina; Charleston, South Carolina; Savannah, Georgia; 
Pensacola, Florida; Mobile, Alabama; New Orleans, Louisi- 
anna; and Galveston, Texas. Of these ten ports the most 
difficult to completely close off was the port of Wilming- 
ton in North Carolina. This was the last Confederate 
port to close. 

Wilmington was uniquely suited for use by blockade 
runners. The port itself was 28 miles up the Cape Fear 
River and was thus protected from a direct enemy attack. 
Goods could easily be on and off-boarded without fear. 
Further, there were two approaches to the port. One was 
from the east through New Inlet; the other further 
south was through Old Inlet. The treacherous and famous 
Frying Pan Shoals and Smith's Island separated these 
two inlets. By land the inlets were only six or 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 3 



seven miles apart, but by sea the distance expanded to 
nearly forty miles. In addition to the presence of these 
natural protections, Forts Fisher and Caswell offered 
incoming vessels support from their guns. Fort Fisher 
was the last fort to fall, and it was not until after its 
fall that the Federal blockade of Wilmington became truly 
effective; therefore, the importance of this fort must 
not be underestimated, 

Wilmington was also valuable for the supply of 
the Confederate army in that it was considerably closer 
to Virginia and Lee^s forces than either Savannah or 
Charleston, This proximity was of considerable impor- 
tance since the problems involved in overland shipment 
were immense. Railcenters and good river transportation 
were at a premium in the South, Wilmington was also a 
good port for shippers to obtain goods. North Carolina 
produced cotton and naval stores in abundance. Cotton 
brought to Wilmington was compressed by steam presses to 
its smallest possible bulk enabling the blockade runners 
to carry 600 to 1,200 bales of cotton weighing 500 to 
600 pounds each. 

Wilmington was ideally situated for shippers who 
transshipped their goods through Bermuda. Wilmington was 
674 miles from Bermuda. With a swift blockade running 
vessel, the journey took about 48 hours. This proximity 
was key in so far as the vessels coming through the 
blockade were forced to run under the cover of darkness 
and were, therefore, subject to the changes of the moon 
and weather, Bermuda was also a healthier place for 
greater portions of the year than Nassau, another favor- 
ite transshipment place, where yellow fever, the scourge 
of the tropics, was a major threat. Bermuda was not 
spared the disease, but its more northerly location 
made it less subject to the dread disease. This meant 
that Bermuda could send goods to ports such as Wilmington 
for more months without risk of contagion. 



THE MODERN GREECE PRIOR TO THE SINKING 

The MODERN GREECE was attempting to run the block- 
ade at Wilmington when she ran aground and sank. Little 
is known of the vessel prior to her sinking. Currently, 
plans of the ship, which was built by Richardson's of 



4 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

Stockton, England in 1859, are unavailable. Some infor- 
mation, however, can be pieced together from Lloyd * s 
Register . The MODERN GREECE was a 753 ton vessel, 210 
feet in length and 29 feet in breadth. She drew 17 feet 
2 inches making her ill-suited for the shoals around the 
entrances to Wilmington. She was a large deep draft 
freighter by comparison with the small light shallow 
draft boats designed especially for blockade running. 
The vessel was driven by an iron propeller screw and had 
schooner type rigging for assistance. She was owned by 
the London firm of Pearson and Co. and was originally 
built for the Hull-Baltic timber trade. She was a freight- 
er pressed into the service of blockade running rather than 
a blockade runner per se. 

The firm of Pearson and Co. , mentioned as owners in 
Lloyd *s Register , is undoubtedly Zachariah C. Pearson and 
Co, of London, who did business through Bermuda during the 
blockade. The records of John T. Bourne, the famous Ber- 
muda middleman, show that he had dealings with the firm 
during 1862. The firm of Pearson and Co. was purchasing 
coal through Bourne. Mr. Bourne's records also show that 
Pearson's went bankrupt during 1862-3 leaving unpaid ac- 
counts with him in Bermuda. The firm was apparently en- 
gaged in blockade running and suffered reverses in the 
trade sufficient to render it bankrupt. The role that the 
sinking of the MODERN GREECE played in this bankruptcy can- 
not be ascertained at this time, but it is reasonable to 
assume that she represented a considerable loss. 

Although Bermuda was a favorite transshipment point 
for British merchants such as the owners of the MODERN 
GREECE and an excellent place for ships wishing to re-coal 
before attempting the blockade, we have no way of knowing 
whether the MODERN GREECE stopped in Bermuda on her way to 
Wilmington. Bourne's manifests and other records make no 
mention of the vessel. Although there is no indication of 
a Bermuda stopover, the movements of the MODERN GREECE 
are fairly well recorded as she set out from England. 

The Federal intelligence was very concerned with 
the movements of blockade runners , and the Official Naval 
Records mention the movements of the MODERN GREECE several 
times. On March 13, 1862, Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary 
of Navy, forwarded to L.M. Goldsborough, his commanding 
officer of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, infor- 
mation obtained from the State Department that a number of 
vessels were suspected of having intentions of running the 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 5 



blockade. The list in the letter included the MODERN GREECE 
Welles enclosed additional information about the ships in 
the form of a communique dated February 21 from the U.S. con- 
sul at Cardiff. In this communique the consul noted (ORN 
Ser. 1, 8, 107): 

The MODERN GREECE sailed on the 19th 
from Gibralter with coal, and the 
CIRCASSIAN (another vessel) is now 
loading with coal for Bermuda. From 
these places or elsewhere they in- 
tend to take arms and stores and 
sail for the United States. 

This is the only mention of the MODERN GREECE in connec- 
tion with Bermuda. The period of time from February to 
June of 1862 is so long as to suggest that this note 
does not refer to the MODERN GREECE »s fateful trip to 
Wilmington. She may have been engaged in some other 
trading associated with the blockade, perhaps as a freight- 
er bound for Bermuda to be off-loaded there for further 
shipment of her goods by another vessel. 

On May 16, 1862, Acting Secretary of the Navy 
G.V. Fox transmitted to Goldsborough further information 
about the movements of the MODERN GREECE. He noted that 
"...the consul at Falmouth reports the departure of the 
steamer MODERN GREECE from that port on the 2d ultimo with 
a cargo, it is suspected, for the rebels." ( ORN Ser. 1, 8, 
372) The slip from the Liverpool paper has not survived, 
but it probably noted the sailing of the ship. 

The movements of the MODERN GREECE were of equal 
concern to the Confederates to whom she was bringing goods, 
for the Wilmington Journal noted her sailing in its June 
26, 1862, edition: "...the steamer MODERN GREECE, fitted 
out at Hull, sailed from Falmouth 28th April ostensibly 
for Tampico..." The list of ships given in the Wilming- 
ton paper with this reference to the MODERN GREECE was 
datelined New York. It gave ships sailing from England 
during the prior two months. This notice appears pecu- 
liarly the day before the sinking and may have been some 
form of code alerting interested parties in Wilmington of 
the vessel ^s impending arrival. This is a matter for con- 
jecture. The use of Tampico as a destination in the notice 
is not at all unusual. Tampico is a Mexican port and would 
have been outside the blockade. Virtually all of the ships 



6 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

setting out to run the blockade gave neutral ports as 
their destination. The use of a neutral port as a sup- 
posed destination was a protection from immediate pur- 
suit by Federal ships, which actively hunted ships pro- 
claiming the Confederate States as a destination. 



THE SINKING OF THE MODERN GREECE 

Details of the destruction and sinking of the MOD- 
ERN GREECE are given in the Official Naval and Army Records 
and Wilmington Journal newspaper. Two U.S. Navy ships, the 
U.S.S. CAMBRIDGE and the U.S.S. STARS AND STRIPES, were 
involved in running aground and sinking the MODERN GREECE. 
L.M. Goldsborough, Commander of the North Atlantic Block- 
ading Squadron, received reports from the commanders of 
both vessels. These reports survive, and it is in them 
that the story of the MODERN GREECE ^s destruction is told. 
On July 2, 1862, Commander W.A. Parker aboard the U.S.S. 
CAMBRIDGE filed a report of his ship's role in the sink- 
ing. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 514) In this report he mentions be- 
ing assisted by the STARS AND STRIPES, the only other mem- 
ber of the blockading squadron present for the engagement. 
Lieutenant A.S. McCook, Commander of the STARS AND STRIPES, 
did not give an account of his vessel's role in the engage- 
ment until August 17; and this was only after Goldsborough 
specifically requested one. McCook's account gives more 
details of the actual firing and augments Parker's basic 
summary report. In the following account McCook 's report 
is used to fill out details not given by Parker. 

According to Parker the CAMBRIDGE spotted the MOD- 
ERN GREECE on the morning of June 27 at 4:15 A.M. near 
the land about three miles from the Federal Point batter- 
ies. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 514) The CAMBRIDGE immediately open- 
ed fire on her with its Parrott gun. When attacked the 
MODERN GREECE hoisted British colors and ran parallel to 
the shore as fast as she could; however, about a half- 
mile from Fort Fisher she ran aground under heavy fire 
from the CAMBRIDGE. Parker stated that immediately after 
the vessel was hard aground the crew abandoned the ship 
by boat. The CAMBRIDGE continued firing on the MODERN 
GREECE for about three hours; however, she was unable to 
sink the MODERN GREECE in spite of striking the vessel 
several times. The CAMBRIDGE had some difficulty sight- 
ing and hitting the MODERN GREECE because the atmosphere 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 7 

was hazy and the vessel slate grey. The ship was also 
protected by the guns of Fort Fisher. 

McCook reported on August 17 that the STARS AND 
STRIPES sighted the MODERN GREECE at 4:00 A.M.; moreover, 
as soon as the STARS AND STRIPES turned around to attack 
her, the CAMBRIDGE signaled ''Enemy in sight." (ORN Ser. 1, 
7, 517-518) McCook, like Parker, noted that the vessel 
did not run aground until after they fired on her. McCook 
gave a more detailed account of the firing on the MODERN 
GREECE than Parker, who simply noted that he used the 
Parrott gun. McCook 's account shows that the attack was 
more difficult than Parker's report suggests. He reported^ 

I used my rifled howitzer and 20 pound- 
er Parrott chiefly, but tried to get 
close enough to use my 8-inch guns. 
Finding I could not get close enough 
to use my broadside guns at direct 
firing without coming under the guns 
of the battery, I tried to richochet 
my shell in. I think I succeeded in 
striking her twice in this way. 

McCook even noted that the firing ceased long enough for 
them to eat breakfast and was resumed shortly thereafter. 
The CAMBRIDGE and the STARS AND STRIPES were forced to 
withdraw soon after breakfast in order to protect them- 
selves from the Federal Point batteries. According to 
McCook a shot from the battery narrowly missed the STARS 
AND STRIPES, passing between her mizzen and main masts. 
Another shell burst overhead throwing pieces of shrapnel 
all around the CAMBRIDGE. McCook reported that after the 
original engagement his vessel stayed around firing occa- 
sionally on the MODERN GREECE to prevent the discharge 
of cargo. He noted that in all his vessel fired 106 
rounds of ammunition during the engagement. 

On July 12, 1862, after Goldsborough received 
Parker's initial summary report, he forwarded it to the 
Department of the Navy with a note saying that he would 
query Parker further about the sinking. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 
515) His request dated July 12, 1862, questioned Parker 
along several lines. He first questioned how the MODERN 
GREECE got so close to shore before she was discovered 
and whether she had been seen by any other blockading ves- 
sel earlier. Goldsborough was obviously concerned about 



8 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 



the effectiveness of the blockade. His second line of 
questioning was about the wreck itself. He wanted the 
latest information about the condition of the wreck; what 
further activity had gone on in the area of the wreck; 
what portion of the cargo had been salvaged; and what was 
in the cargo. He also wanted the name of the vessel which 
was not given in the initial report. Since he had not 
yet received information from the STARS AND STRIPES, he 
asked Parker to furnish him additional information about 
the STARS AND STRIPES' role in the initial engagement. 
On August 1 Parker filed a supplementary report 
on the sinking; wherein, he answered the questions in 
Goldsborough's July 12 order. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 516) Parker 
offered a simple solution as to how the MODERN GREECE got 
so close to the shore without being discovered. He stated 
that a combination of hazy weather, the early dawn light, 
and the slate grey color of the MODERN GREECE rendered 
her so indistinct that she could easily move along the 
shore without being spotted. McCook's report offered an 
even better answer, (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 517-518) He was 
confident that the MODERN GREECE could not have succeeded 
in running the blockade in any case, because of where the 
blockading ships were anchored. As to their location he 
reported : 

I was anchored nearly abreast of the 
entrance (presumably to New Inlet); 
the steamer was run ashore about half 
a mile to the northward of the battery 
on Federal Point. The CAMBRIDGE was 
anchored to the northward and west- 
ward of me, probably 2 1/2 miles dis- 
tant. 

This positioning was such that incoming ships, like the 
MODERN GREECE, could approach reasonably near the inlet 
before being detected and trapped. 

Parker answered in great detail Goldsborough ' s 
questions about the condition of the MODERN GREECE after 
the attack. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 516) He replied: 

I counted nine distinct shot holes 
made by our battery, some of which 
were near the water's edge, thus ad- 
mitting the sea water to flow into 
the steamer freely. A curious 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 9 

circumstance connected with the affair 
was that after several of our shot had 
struck the steamer the fort fired sev- 
eral shot at her. We were unable to 
account for the maneuver at the time, 
but I have since learned that the 
officers at the fort fired at the 
steamer solid shot to admit water in- 
to her and thus prevent our shells 
from exploding the large quantity of 
powder in her hold, and also to insure 
her sinking in case we should try to 
tow her off the beach. 

The Official Army Records show that the Rebels 
themselves intentionally fired on the MODERN GREECE. 
Confederate Brigadier General S.G. French at Wilmington, 
N.C., wrote to General S. Cooper at Richmond about the 
sinking. His letter reinforces Parker ^s statements 
quoted above and gives additional information as to why 
the ship was hit by Confederate shells. ( ORA Sen 1, 41, 
part 2) He wrote: 

Last night the English steamer MODERN 
GREECE, in attempting to enter New In- 
let, off Fort Fisher, got aground. She 
is laden with powder, rifles, and rifle 
cannon. The enemy are shelling her. 
We have sunk her to wet the powder and 
prevent an explosion. Have sent down 
steamers to aid and push to save some 
of the cargo. She is three-quarters 
of a mile from shore, which prevents 
us keeping the enemy 's vessels far 
enough off to prevent their shelling 
her. 

The shelling sunk the ship, for Parker had already declared 
the vessel a total wreck noting that the spar deck was, by 
August 17, 1862^ level with the water and that the upper 
areas had been washed away leaving only the masts and 
smokestacks still standing. He also mentioned that the 
vessel had already settled into a bed of sand making its 
ultimate recovery doubtful. 



10 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

Goldsborough also queried about activity in the 
area around the wreck. In answer to this Parker mention- 
ed that the MONTICELLO, STARS AND STRIPES, and CAMBRIDGE 
were continuing to fire occasionally on the wreck to 
prevent salvage. The guns of Fort Fisher still kept 
the Federal ships from approaching too near. A portion 
of the cargo, however, was salvaged in spite of the Fed- 
eral ships ^ efforts. Parker also relayed to Goldsborough 
what he knew of the cargo and its salvage. (ORN Ser. 1, 
7, 516) He stated that 

...her cargo consisted of 1,000 tons 
of gun powder, some rifled cannon and 
other arms and equipment, the quan- 
tities of which I am not informed, 
together with bales of clothing and 
spirituous liquors. 

I believe that the liquors and 
clothing have been saved, as we 
could see that a large quantity of 
bales , boxes , and barrels had been 
placed on shore from the steamer 
during the three days after she was 
beached. I have information from 
contrabands from shore that not one 
pound of powder nor a single cannon 
was saved. 

By the time of his August 1 report Parker had ascertain- 
ed that the ship was the MODERN GREECE and notified Golds- 
borough of this. The Official Naval Records show that 
Goldsborough forwarded the information received from Par- 
ker to Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy. (ORN Ser. 1, 
7, 516-517) 

The reports filed by Parker and McCook were pes- 
simistic about the salvage potential of the vessel. An- 
other contemporary source, the June 27 edition of the 
Wilminjgton Journal , gave a different picture. This was 
the same day the MODERN GREECE was run aground. The 
paper reported "...that quite a large portion of the 
cargo will be saved... The passengers and crew, with their 
baggage and private property all are safe." The July 10 
edition of the W ilmington Journal gave more details about 
the salvage: 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 11 



MAP I 



WRECK OF THE MODERN GREECE 
AT APPROACH TO 
LOWER CAPE FEAR RIVER 




Frying Pan Shoals 



12 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

Col. Leventhorpe has already got out 
and landed a large quantity of arms 
etc. If the weather continues favor- 
able during the day, he thinks he will 
be able to save all the cargo and 
the vessel also. 

The local newspaper, as other information proves, was bet- 
ter informed than the Federal blockaders who relied on 
observation and spies for their information. Nevertheless, 
as the other information shows, the paper's optimism about 
the possibility of salvaging the entire ship was unwarranted 



SALVAGE EFFORTS IN 1862 

The MODERN GREECE was a large ship carrying a valu- 
able cargo, and her sinking represented a considerable loss 
which was diminished only slightly by the salvage of some 
of her cargo. As the reports of Parker and McCook show, 
salvage efforts began immediately after the ship ran aground. 
The Federal blockaders tried to block Confederate efforts at 
salvage by firing on the wreck. Federal forces were espe- 
cially interested in preventing salvage of goods from 
aboard the MODERN GREECE, for they thought that the vessel 
was loaded exclusively with military equipment. The avail- 
able information and the artifacts recovered in 1962 show 
that the cargo contained a large quantity of civilian 
goods as well as military supplies. The Official Naval 
Records detail to a limited extent the military cargo. 
The Wilmington Journal of July 1, 1862, gives details about 
civilian materials salvaged in the form of a list of goods 
from the MODERN GREECE due to be sold at auction on July 8. 
An actual manifest of the cargo is at this time unavailable. 
Its utility would be questionable, if it was available, since 
the manifests on blockade runners were often intentionally 
vague. 

Parker, the commanding officer aboard the attacking 
ship CAMBRIDGE, in his supplementary report on the sinking 
of the MODERN GREECE sent to Goldsborough on August 1, 1862, 
noted that some of the cargo was saved in spite of Federal 
efforts to prevent it. (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 516) Parker stated 
that the cargo consisted of 1,000 tons of gunpowder, rifled 
cannon, arms and equipment, clothing, and liquor, all in unde- 
termined quantities. Parker did not feel that either the 
powder or the cannon were salvageable. O.S. Glisson, senior 
officer aboard the U.S.S. MOUNT VERNON stationed in the 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 13 



Cape Fear River area, gave similar information in his re- 
port to Goldsborough dated July 22, 1862. He stated that 
"...the steamer MODERN GREECE... was principally loaded 
with gunpowder, all of which was destroyed when she went 
down. She had on board several rifled cannon which will 
be lost." (ORN Ser. 1, 7, 589) Other information shows 
that both Parker and Glisson were underestimating the 
quantity of material that could be salvaged from the MOD- 
ERN GREECE. Surviving reports from two other commanders 
of blockading ships in the Cape Fear area furnish more 
details about the amount of materials salvaged from the 
wreck. Commander Armstrong aboard the U.S.S. STATE OF 
GEORGIA and Commander D.L. Braine aboard the U.S.S. 
MONTICELLO furnished more information in their reports 
to Acting Rear-Admiral S.P. Lee, the commander with the 
North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Norfolk, Va. , than 
either Parker or Glisson did to Goldsborough. Armstrong 
reported on August 19 that "...the MODERN GREECE, beached 
at New Inlet, brought in many articles, and much of her 
cargo was saved: she brought four brass guns." (ORN 
Ser. 1, 7, 659) Braine reported on September 22 that he 
had learned the following information from spies: 

...the rebels succeeded in getting 
out of the MODERN GREECE (which 
vessel was run ashore near New Inlet) 
six rifled cannon, which from their 
description, I should judge to be 
Whitworth's breech-loading guns; 
also 500 stand of arms and a large 
amount of powder and clothing, the 
last two in damaged condition. 

Each of the reports mentioning the Whitworth cannon gave a 
different number. For example Armstrong ( ORN Ser. 1, 7, 
659) reported that there were four guns, and Braine (ORN 
Ser. 1, 8, 88) reported that there were six guns. A third 
report (ORN Ser. 1, 8, 89-90) dated September 23, 1862 from 
G.H. Scott, commanding the U.S.S. MARATANZA stationed off 
the Cape Fear River gave this information about the MODERN 
GREECE received from William Robins, a Confederate ship's 
carpenter: 

her cargo consisted of powder and 
arms and whiskey. Much was taken 
out and much remains. Powder was 



) 



14 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

all wet. They dried some of it. 
She had two heavy guns. 

There is no way of accounting for the variance in the 
number of guns reported as aboard the MODERN GREECE ex- 
cept to suggest the possibility of unreliable informants. 
Blockade Command at Newport News, Virginia report- 
ed to the U.S. Navy at Washington, D.C. that there were 
six guns. Acting Rear-Admiral S.P. Lee aboard the U.S. 
Flagship MINNESOTA at Newport News, Virginia sent the 
following information to Gideon Welles ( ORN Ser. 1, 8 
118): 

...the rebels got out of the MODERN 
GREECE which was run ashore near New 
Inlet, 500 stands of arms, 6 rifled 
cannon, and a large amount of dam- 
aged powder and clothing... 

This report is worded almost exactly like Braine's and 
was probably compiled from it. 

The Federal reports were inaccurate. Surviving 
sources show that only four Whitworths were saved. Col. 
William Lamb, who took command of Fort Fisher on July 2, 
1862, wrote (Clark 5, 351): 

Shortly after taking command of Fort 
Fisher I recovered from the wreck of 
a blockade runner, the British Steam- 
ship MODERN GREECE, four 12 pounder 
Whitworth rifle guns, with a range 
of five miles. With these guns, we 
made the U.S. Blockading fleet remove 
their anchorage from two and a half 
miles to five miles from the fort. 
So many vessels were saved with these 
guns that they soon had a reputation 
throughout the South, and three of 
them were transferred to other com- 
mands, two going to Virginia, 

There are two other references about the use of the Whit- 
worths salvaged from the MODERN GREECE. On October 27, 1862 
Acting Rear-Admiral S.P. Lee at Hampton Roads, Virginia re- 
ported (Om Ser. 1, 8, 152) to Gideon Welles; 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 15 



...They state that the battery which 
fired on the MARATANZA on the 11th 
instant, as I had the honor of in- 
forming the Department on the 15th, 
consisted of two field pieces, Whit- 
worth guns , landed from the MODERN 
GREECE, and brought from Fort Fisher, 
to which place they were returned 
on the 15th. . . 

Confederate reports also show that the guns were of stra- 
tegic importance for the defense of the Wilmington area. 
Major-General Whiting on August 24, 1863, wrote (ORA Ser. 1, 
18, 415) to James A. Seddon, Secretary of . War at Richmond: 

The efforts of the enemy to stop our 
steamers are increasing. This force 
is largely increased. I have met 
with a serious and heavy loss in 
that Whitworth (lost earlier 9 mi. 
North of Fort Fisher), a gun that 
in the hands of the indefatigable 
Lamb has saved dozens of vessels 
and millions of money to the Confed- 
erate States. I beg that a couple 
of the Whitworth guns originally 
saved by him from the MODERN GREECE 
may be sent here at once. Their 
long range makes them most suitable 
for a seaboard position. Could I 
get them with horses we could save 
many a vessel that will now be lost 
to us . 

The Whitworths were used on the beach in an area from Fort 
Fisher to Masonboro Inlet. 

From the Official Naval Records it seems that the 
most important military supplies saved from the MODERN 
GREECE were the Whitworths and the rifles. Although the 
Whitworth guns themselves were saved, not all the ammuni- 
tion for them aboard the MODERN GREECE was saved, for 
75 Whitworth bolts and 10 case shot were recovered in 1962 
In addition to this ammunition, the majority of the 200 
tons of powder purportedly aboard the MODERN GREECE was 
lost. 



16 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

The MODERN GREECE was not completely laden with 
military goods. A major portion of the artifacts recov- 
ered in 1962 is hardware and other civilian goods. The 
Wilmington Journal of June 31, 1862, offers evidence that 
the civilian goods salvaged from the MODERN GREECE were 
sold at auction on July 8. Everything, however, was not 
recovered in good condition, for the newspaper reports: 

We understand a large proportion of 
the cargo of the ship MODERN GREECE, 
advertised for sale at auction 8th 
inst. is in a damaged condition, and 
we are requested to say catalogues 
of that saved in good order will be 
prepared as soon as the ship is dis- 
charged, and the quantity ascertained. 

On July 1, the paper gave a notice of the auction sale. 

This notice lists the typed of goods salvaged. It reads 

in its entirety: 

Auction sale by Wilkes Morris, Auc- 
tioneer/Cargo sale at auction by the 
package. Per steamship MODERN GREECE, 
direct from London. On Tuesday next, 
8th inst., at 11 o^clock, A.M., I 
will sell at No. 2, Granite Row, the 
entire cargo (900 tons) of steamship 
MODERN GREECE reserving such articles 
as may be required by the government. 

This is one of the most valuable 
cargoes ever imported into the South- 
ern Confederacy, and consists of/Cases 
dry goods/Casks ■ hardware/cases , boots 
and shoes/bales, blankets/cases ready- 
made clothing/cases under shifts/bales 
shirts/cases felt hats/bags pepper/ 
bags pimento/kegs bi-carb, soda/kegs 
soda ash/cases mustard/drugs and medi- 
cine/black lead/gunny bags/sacks salt/ 
qr casks choice dark cognac brandy/qr 
casks choice pale cognac brandy/bas- 
kets champaigne/qr casks red wine/ 
qr casks white wine/hhds choice scotch 
whiskey/cases santerine/cases claret/ 
cases of maraschino/cases red spark- 
ling burgundy/with various other 






The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 17 



articles./ Damaged portion of cargo 
will be sold first. Catalogues will 
be furnished as soon as the quantity- 
landed in order can be ascertained. 

The 1962 divers did not recover items similar to many 
given in this list. For example, no other reference men- 
tions clothing or spices, both of which were aboard ac- 
cording to the auction sale list. Further, none of the 
other accounts specifically details the various types 
of spirituous liquors aboard the MODERN GREECE. Not all 
the liquor made it to the auction sale, for the soldiers 
at Fort Fisher drank some of the salvaged liquor, much to 
the chagrin of their military superiors and the local 
populace. The list of auctioned goods augments our know- 
ledge of the total cargo aboard the MODERN GREECE. 

Another contemporary report of a young soldier 
at Fort Fisher also records goods salvaged from the ves- 
sel. The July 5, 1862, letter from W.B. Taylor at Camp 
Lamb to his mother is now in the possession of J. Foard, 
Blockade Runner Museum, Carolina Beach, North Carolina. 
It reads: 

I arrived at camp safe; and when I 
got here, I found companies at Camp 
Lamb were absent. They were down at 
Confederate Point unloading a steamer, 
the MODERN GREECE, which ran aground 
about half a mile from Fort Fisher. 
She was a very large steamer. She 
had twelve thousand rifles aboard of 
which four thousand were saved, and 
two hundred tons of powder also, and 
immense lot of other goods of every 
description. There was enough to fill 
Wilkes^ mill and Granite Row, but 
one half the cargo was lost there 
where schooner ran into Masonboro 
Sound yesterday, and company has gone 
down to see to it.... 

Although the Rebels were able to salvage a portion 
of both the military and civilian cargo, they could not 
refloat the vessel. Evidence suggests that a portion of 
the engines may have been removed and placed in a gunboat 



18 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 



being built at Wilmington in 1862. Major-General J.G. FoS' 
ter at New Bern reported on October 3, 1862, to Major-Gen- 
eral H.W. Halleck in Washington, D.C. about activities in 
eastern North Carolina. He wrote ( ORA Ser. 1, 18, 416): 

I omitted to mention, in speaking of 
Wilmington, that yellow fever has 
broken out there and bids fair to 
become an epidemic. The inhabitants 
have fled the town; the telegraph of- 
fice is closed, and all work on the 
iron-clad gunboats now building 
there is suspended. Concerning these 
gunboats I have some information 
which I deem accurate, and which I 
will give in brief as you may desire 
to communicate the same to the Navy 
Department: They are some 150 feet in 
length, 35 or 40 feet beam, and will 
draw some 14 feet water. They are 
simply intended for river defense 
and are not designed to cross the 
bar. The engines are from the MOD- 
ERN GREECE and the UNCLE BEN. They 
are not yet set in. Five weeks 
work will be necessary to finish 
the first and three months for the 
second. They are plated with rail- 
road iron and built after the pat- 
tern of the MERRIMAC No. 1. 



Two sister gunboats , the NORTH CAROLINA and the RALEIGH, 
were built at Wilmington during this period. Their 
dimensions roughly coincided with those given in this 
report. The NORTH CAROLINA »s engines supposedly came 
from the UNCLE BEN (ORN Ser. 1, 8, 88) which suggests 
that, of the two similar gunboats, the RALEIGH received 
the engines from the MODERN GREECE. Other reports 
(ORN Ser. 1, 8, 90 and 119) stated that one of the en- 
gines came from the UNCLE BEN^ and the other was new 
from Richmond. Both accounts can be reconciled by an 
examination of the wreck itself, which still contains 
the boilers and the propeller. This suggests that a 
portion of the RALEIGH'S engines may have come from 
the MODERN GREECE and that a portion such as the boilers 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 19 



may have been new from Richmond. How much of the engines 
removed from the MODERN GREECE was placed aboard the 
RALEIGH cannot be determined with any accuracy. An ex- 
amination of all the evidence relative to salvage in 
1862 suggests that a portion of the military and civilian 
cargo as well as a portion of the machinery off the MOD- 
ERN GREECE was saved before the vessel settled into the 
sand where she laid virtually undisturbed for 100 years. 



THE 1962 RECOVERY OF ARTIFACTS 

The location of the MODERN GREECE was known for many 
years 5 and this knowledge was passed down through the gen- 
erations by historians and fishermen. For a number of years 
a fishing pier jutted out in the vicinity of the wreck, 
marking the site. However, the ocean currents had covered 
the wreck with sand in 30 feet of water making it virtually 
inaccessible. 

In early spring of 1962^ a fierce storm ravaged 
the North Carolina coast. The high winds and the surg- 
ing waves removed the sand uncovering the remains of 
the MODERN GREECE. Shortly after this storm divers 
from the Naval Ordnance School at Indian Head, Maryland, 
while visiting the area on a holiday, descended onto the 
iron hulled wreck. Upon surfacing they reported that 
the wreck had been cleared of sand to a level below the 
main deck and the cargo was virtually intact inside. 

News of this discovery was passed to the North 
Carolina State Department of Archives and History, North 
Carolina State Confederate Centennial Commission, and 
the Governor's office. The Office of Archives and His- 
tory with cooperation of these other agencies organized 
salvage operations to recover some of the cargo. 

This initial salvage operation lasted slightly 
more than three weeks during which time a large number 
of artifacts were recovered. Then operations halted 
so that the divers could return to the Naval Ordnance 
School. However, the divers were able to return to the 
Fort Fisher area during the summer and resume diving on 
the MODERN GREECE. During this period they also in- 
vestigated ten other wrecks in the lower Cape Fear area. 
Both diving operations are well documented and furnish 
an interesting account. 

Eleven Navy divers on their holiday first started 
exploring the area around the MODERN GREECE on Thursday, 



20 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 



March 15. They were working from a rented shrimp boat, 
WAYNE R, commanded by E.L. Lewis of Carolina Beach, N.C. 
The divers located the wreck 300 yards offshore in 25 
feet of water. By Saturday evening they had brought to 
shore 17 Enfield rifles, 3 Whitworth shells, 1 triangu- 
lar bayonet, several saber bayonets, and a ship»s anchor. 
The diving continued on Sunday the eighteenth with 20 more 
Enfield rifles being brought ashore as well as 10 Enfield 
carbines, a lead pig, more shells , and bayonets. On 
Sunday seven of the eleven divers were forced to return 
to Indian Head. 

The departure of the seven divers did not put an 
end to the operation. The four remaining divers, real- 
izing the enormity of their find and recognizing the 
limits of the resources available to them, sought aid 
from the Coast Guard. They hoped to get a 90 foot craft 
with diving gear and a winch from Southport. This would 
have made the diving operation easier. The Coast Guard, 
however, sent a different craft. On Tuesday, March 20, 
the buoy tender JONQUIL was ordered by the Coast Guard 
to help with the salvage program. 

The divers spent Monday battling with swift cur- 
rents and 38 degree water as they recovered 30 more rifles, 
a few shells, and some more bayonets and waited for news 
of additional support. On Tuesday morning the divers re- 
ceived encouraging support from North Carolina Governor 
Terry Sanford, who asked their commanding officer. Commander 
B.J. Belmore, for more divers and permission for the divers 
to remain as long as needed. Belmore sent the permission 
and an additional team of six divers that arrived ready for 
work on Thursday. 

When the JONQUIL arrived on Tuesday evening her 
captain. Lieutenant G.A. Pehaim, said that it would be 
too dangerous to take his vessel in as close to the 
shore as the diving operations required. Although the 
JONQUIL was unable to give direct assistance. Coast 
Guard headquarters at Portsmouth, Virginia ordered her 
to stand by and give whatever aid possible. She was to 
work closely with A.L. Honeycutt, Jr., the supervisor of 
the North Carolina State Historic Site at Fort Fisher. 

Thursday, March 22, was a big day for the divers. 
They brought up 13 lead pigs, 12 tin pigs, rifles, 15 Whit- 
worth shells, and 12 packages of tin plated steel sheets. 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 21 



The large number of artifacts being recovered by the divers 
posed storage and preservation problems. The state turned 
to Smithsonian for expert advice on how to handle the relics. 
A vacant building on the Fort Fisher Air Force Station pro- 
vided temporary storage facilities. Wet storage space, how- 
ever, was so scarce that some of the artifacts were even kept 
in a bathtub belonging to one of the state officials working 
on the project. 

The recovery had attracted so much media attention 
that the salvage operation was faced with yet another un- 
expected problem. On Thursday March 22, the divers or- 
dered a 38-foot civilian diving tender, HELEN MARIE, to 
stand clear of the wreck. The tender was attempting to 
anchor over the wreck and commence salvage operations of 
its own. The attention given the wreck also had a positive 
effect, for the North Carolina Confederate Centennial Com- 
mission agreed to help finance the divers^ stay and defray 
some of the other costs involved in the operation. The State 
Department of Archives and History also planned to reimburse 
the divers for their expenses. 

Rough weather precluded diving operations for Friday, 
March 23 j however, by Saturday a Navy minesweeping boat 
(MSB) had arrived from Charleston, S.C. for the divers to 
use as a floating platform. During the weekend of March 
24-25, bad weather and strong winds hindered the diving 
activities. The wind and waves were so strong that it took 
the MSB more than two hours to tie up before the divers 
could go down. As the wind increased the boat was forced to 
return to port after only about one hour of diving. 

The bad weather continued and the divers were forced 
to discontinue operations until Tuesday, March 27. The re- 
mainder of the week, however, was extremely fruitful. Dur- 
ing this time the divers recovered the files, handsaws, 
picks, and a brass bullet mold. The picks were recovered 
in excellent condition. To get at this cache of artifacts 
the divers had used dynamite to blow open a compartment 
of the ship. The use of dynamite is not an accepted 
archaeological technique, but the Navy divers were not 
archaeologists and their interest was simply the salvage 
of the cargo. After the dynamite laid open the compart- 
ment, picks and saw blades were found lashed to the hull 
within the compartment. The divers continued working 
for one more week until Tuesday, April 10, when opera- 
tions were discontinued. 



22 The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 

The divers returned to the Cape Fear area in July 
of 1962 to continue recovering artifacts from the MODERN 
GREECE. At this time they were assisted by a minesweeper 
from Minron 10 at Charleston, S.C.; by an amphibious 
landing craft from the Atlantic Amphibious Force at Nor- 
folk, Va. ; and by a barge with a crane from the Sixth 
Naval District at Charleston, S.C. Later these vessels 
were joined by the U.S.S. PETREL, a submarine rescue 
vessel. It brought heavier equipment than was previously 
available and furnished a platform for the divers to work 
from. 

This equipment allowed the divers to recover boxes 
of goods, an anchor, more lead, the spool of wire, and 
other heavy articles. Dynamite was again used on July 8 
to lay open the cargo area. With the use of an air pump 
the divers were able to recover a large number of knives 
and small medical tools. 

The entire summer was not spent simply working on 
the MODERN GREECE. Exploratory dives were made on ten 
other vessels in the lower Cape Fear area including the 
PHANTOM, HEBE, VENUS, BEAUREGARD, IRON AGE, RANGER, ELLA, 
BENDIGO, and two other unidentified sites to ascertain 
the type and condition of the vessels and the prospects 
for future work. Similar diving operations on a lesser 
scale were conducted in the summer of 1963. During 1962- 
63, some 11,500 artifacts were recovered from the MODERN 
GREECE. 



STORAGE AND PRESERVATION OF THE ARTIFACTS 

The recovery of so many artifacts presented a prob- 
lem of storage and preservation. An appropriation by the 
North Carolina General Assembly made possible the estab- 
lishment of a preservation laboratory administered by the 
Office of Archives and History. Herein the artifacts 
could be stored and preserved. 

The laboratory is located at the Fort Fisher State 
Historic Site not far from where the MODERN GREECE lies. 
This location allowed the recovered materials to be trans- 
ferred promptly to the laboratory for storage and eventual 
preservation. From 1963 to 1965, as budgets permitted, 
the laboratory was equipped with chemical supplies , dry- 
ing ovens, and equipment for sandblasting, water distilla- 
tion and deionization, and electrolysis. A study collec- 
tion room with controlled atmosphere and a storage room 
for untreated artifacts were also constructed. 



The MODERN GREECE 1859 - 1977 23 



Experiments were conducted to determine the best 
treatment for preserving artifacts suffering from varying 
degrees of deterioration caused by salt water. Because 
of the large number of identical objects recovered, it 
was feasible to use trial and error tests which in some 
instances caused destruction of the artifacts. Success- 
fully preserved artifacts from the MODERN GREECE have 
been sent to a number of museums, historic sites, and 
individuals and groups for temporary use in classes and 
exhibits. A summary list would include the following: 
The State of North Carolina; Smithsonian; Fort Gordon, 
Georgia; Mariner's Museum; Naval Historical Display Cen- 
ter; Woodrow Wilson Birthplace; New Hanover Museum; the 
town of Southport; and the Blockade Runner Museum. 

Efforts have been made to protect the MODERN 
GREECE. In 1967 the North Carolina General Assembly 
passed the underwater archaeology law, declaring state 
ownership of all historical and archaeological material 
lying unclaimed in state waters for 10 years or more. 
This statute also provided the authority for the state 
to grant permits or licenses for exploratory, recovery, 
and salvage operations. To date approximately 200 divers 
have participated in dives on the MODERN GREECE under the 
terms of the Short Term Sport and Hobby Diving Permit. 
These divers continue to add to our knowledge of the 
wreck. The MODERN GREECE and artifacts from her cargo 
represent a valuable resource for students of the Civil 
War, marine archaeology, and preservation. 



PLATE I 




A. Salvage boat en route to site 



'^^ 





B, Work aboard salvage boat 



PLATE II 




A, Deck of salvage boat 




B. Recovery of anchor 



PLATE III 




-32.^ 



A, Enfield bullets aboard salvage boat 




B. Lead ingots aboard salvage boat 



THE INVENTORY 




SHIP'S EQUIPMENT AND FITTINGS 



Article: 


Anchor, 


large (MG-5G) 


Recovered: 


1 




Size: 


Height 


(crown to shank) 8' 




Height 


(of ring) 14' 




Length 


(of stock) 9' 6'' 




Width 


(of ring) 0'12" 




Width 


(of stock) 0' 4 1/4" 




Width 


(of fluke) Oa?" 




Width 


(of shank) 0' 4 1/2" 




Height 


(of fluke) O'lO" 


Weight: 


1,800 pc 


)unds 


Markings : 


None 




Description: 


Kedge type anchor. 


Condition: 


Good. 


The overall deterioration, which pro 




duces a grainy effect, averages 3/16". 



Figure 1. 



Anchor, large 
Scale: 1/15 




Front 



Side 



26 Ship's Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Weight : 
Markings : 
Description 
Condition: 



Anchor, small (MG-5G) 
1 

Height 
Height 
Length 
Width 
Width 
Width 
Width 
Height 
1,700 pounds 
None 

Kedge type anchor. 
Good. Surface deterioration, as 
large anchor, produces a grainy- 
averaging approximately 3/16". 



(crown to shank) 


9^ 




(of ring) 


14 




(of stock) 


9 


6" 


(of ring) 





12" 


(of stock) 





r 4TT 


(of fluke) 





16" 


(of shank) 





^ 5" 


(of fluke) 





run 



in the 
effect 



Figure 2. 



Anchor 
Scale: 



small 
1/15 




Front 



Side 



Ship's Equipment 27 



Figure 3 



Assembly, steam pressure 
Scale: 1/4 




28 Ship^s Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Assembly, steam pressure (MG-2W) 
1 

Length (overall) 32 " 
Length (of gauge) 26 1/2" 
None 

The assembly column is constructed of iron 
with brass gate valves. The main inlet at 
the top of the column appears to have been 
mounted to the hull with four bolts. From 
the column there are four run-off points 
for supplying steam pressure. Two of these 
have gate valves. Traces of glass remain 
around the screws where the gauge was mount- 
ed. An on-off valve is at either end of the 
gauge with a bleed-off valve at the bottom. 
When they are disassembled, the various 
valve parts do not interchange. 
Good 



Article : 
Recovered : 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



unidentified (MG-2W) 



(of assembly) 10 3/8" 

(of center inlet) 2 1/2" 

(of holes in center section) 1/2" 



Condition: 



Assembly, 
1 

Diameter 
Diameter 
Diameter 
None 

This three-piece iron assembly is possibly 
a cooling device, since it contains a 2 1/2" 
hole as an inlet in each of the outer sec- 
tions and fifteen 1/2" holes in the center 
section for the distribution of flow. The 
assembly is held together with bolts at 
three points. 
Good 



Ship's Equipment 29 



Figure 4. 



Assembly, unidentified 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 5. 



Assembly, valve (MG-2W) 

1 

Length (of valve portion) 7" 

Diameter (of flanges) 5 1/4" 

None 

On-off valve made from copper pipe brazed 

to brass flanges. The in-line valve 

flanges were bolted in place with four 

iron bolts. This is probably the most 

typical on-off valve used on the MODERN 

GREECE since a large number of them have 

been seen on the vessel. 

Good 



Assembly, valve 
Scale: 1/4 




30 Ship^s Equipment 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 



Condition 



Binnacle (MG-7G) 

1 

Diameter 11 1/2" 

Height 14 1/2" 

None 

The cone shaped cover for ship^s compass is 

in four soldered sections of thin sheet 

brass. Two of the four transparent glass 

windows are fitted with outside brackets 

presumably for covers to slide into. The 

small three-tiered hood flaring into the 

top of the cover consists of a basal rim, 

a middle tier with three ventilation spaces , 

and a bolted top knob. The binnacle was 

found with a small chain wrapped five turns 

around it. The remainder of the chain 

trailed off under a pile of ship's debris 

outside the hull. The chain was possibly 

used to hold the compass and stand together 

so that they could be thrown overboard and 

retrieved later. 

Good. It is slightly dented and gouged 

with some of the glass broken out of the 

windows. All windows, however, have some 

glass . 



Figure 6. 



Binnacle 
Scale: 1/4 




Ship's Equipment 31 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



7tt 

10" 
30" 



Bitt (MG-5Z) 
1 

Width 
Width 
Width 
Length 
None 

Double posted ship's bitt. Another of sim- 
ilar design has been observed in the forward 
section of the hulk. 

Good. Reverse side slightly broken off. 
Very little decay. 



(of base) 

(of bitt) 

(at top of bitt) 

(of outer edge) 



Figure 7. 



Bitt 
Scale: 



1/5 







m I <^T ~^- ■-■■.— ^ , .— — .- ,, I- — 




Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 



Block, large (MG-5Q) 

1 

Length (overall) 22 1/2" 

Diameter (of sheave) 9 3/8" 

None 

A metal plain sheaved block constructed to 

swivel. 

Good. Neither the hook nor wheel will turn 



32 Ship's Equipment 



Figure 8. 



^lock, large (MG-5Q) 
Scale: 1/3 



r 



^-— -^3 



/ 



i 



m 



i^-y; 



':i£.^ 



Front 




Sid« 



Ship's Equipment 33 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Block, small (MG-5Q) 
1 

Length (overall) 14 1/2" 
Diameter (of sheave) 4" 
None 

A metal plain sheaved block constructed to 
swivel. 

Good. Metal is corroded and has a grainy- 
texture. 



Figure 9. 



Block, small 
Scale: 1/3 




Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Box, bilge strainer (MG-6U) 
1 

Length 10" 
Upper width 7" 
Lower width 5 1/4" 
Cover length 10 3/8" 
Cover width 7 5/8" 
None 

The strainer appears to have been made from 
a single piece of sheet lead 3/16" thick 
cut into three pieces and formed into a rect- 
angle with one side sloping inward at the 
bottom. The bottom and sloped side are one 
piece. One narrow side panel is a separate 
piece. Three sides are perforated with 1/4" 
holes 5/8" apart. Holes on the fourth side 
are 3/16" in diameter. The holes are punch- 
ed out, and the individual sides are joined 
together with the bottom, which has no holes, 
by soldering. The cover is a lead sheet with 
a hole 2 I/8" in diameter centered near one 
end. Corners were cut off the lead sheet 
and the edges bent down and soldered to form 
the lid, which measures 10 3/8" by 7 5/8". 
Good with only a few scars. 



34 Ship's Equipment 



Figure 10. 



Box, bilge strainer (MG-6U) 
Scale: 1/4 










'^^ 




Detail of positioning and guide marks for holes (Full scale). 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



bell shaped (MG-5Y) 



Capstan, 
1 

Diameter (of top) 24 3/4'^ 
Diameter (of middle) 15 3/4" 
Diameter (of base) 19 1/4" 
Height 24 1/4" 

None 

A bell shaped capstan was recovered without 
its mount. It is equipped to operate manu- 
ally or mechanically. 
Poor. Metal is very rusted. 



Ship^s Equipment 35 



Figure 11. 



Capstan, 
bell shaped 
Scale: 1/6 



Figure 12. 




Capstan, hour- 
glass shaped 
Scale: 1/6 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Remarks : 



Capstan, hour-glass shaped (MG-5Y) 
1 

(of top) 

(of middle) 

(of mount) 



18^' 
9 3/4' 

24" 
26" 



Diameter 

Diameter 

Diameter 

Height 

None 

An hour-glass shaped capstan was recovered 

with its mount. It is equipped to operate 

manually or mechanically. 

Poor. Metal is very rusted. 

See Figure 13 for a comparison of the top 

and bottom views of the two types of capstan. 



36 Ship's Equipment 

Figure 13. Comparative views of the tops and bottoms of the 
capstans . 





a. Top view of bell shaped 
capstan. 



b. Bottom view of bell 
shaped capstan. 





c. Top view of hour-glass 
shaped capstan. 



d. Bottom view of hour- 
glass shaped capstan, 



Ship^s Equipment 37 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Chain, stud (MG-3J) 

1 section 

Length (of chain fragment) 42 1/2" 



Length (of stud link) 

Width (of stud link) 

Stud (diameter) 

None 

Metal stud link chain. 

suggests that it is an anchor chain. 

Good. Corrosion has given the metal a 

grainy texture. 



6 3/4" 
4 1/8" 
3/4" 

The large size 



Figure 14. 



Chain, stud section 
Scale: 1/6 




Figure 15. 



Chain, stud link 
Scale: 1/2 




38 Ship's Equipment 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Weight: 
Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Figure 16. 



Counterbalance (MG-6J) 
1 



Height 
¥idth 
Length 
Diameter 



1/2" 
5/8 '^ 
1/4" 
1/8 '^ 



(of ring) 
52 pounds and 12 ounces 
None 

An iron ring was connected by a single bolt 
to the top of the rectangular shaped iron 
weight. 

Good. The bolt has deteriorated and the 
ring is now loose. 



Counterbalance 
Scale: 1/3 




Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Coupling, hose (MG-5W) 
1 

Length 7" 

¥idth 3 1/2" 

Width (of fitting) 2 3/8" 
None 

A brass hose coupling with two cast on tight- 
ening spurs. The coupling apparently was 
made for a hose having an inside diameter of 
2 1/4". The threaded portion of the coupling 
has eight threads per inch. 
Good 



Ship^s Equipment 39 



Figure 17. 



Coupling, hose 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description; 



Condition: 



Figure 18 



3" 
3 3/4 



Davit (MG-2P) 

1 

Length 14' 

Approximate diameter 

None 

The davit has a cleat near the middle with 

a swivel block mount located on the upper 

end. The davit at some time appears to 

have been twisted and was bent slightly 

below the shoulder of the mounting socket. 

Good. Corrosion has given the metal a 

grainy texture. 



Davit 
Scale :' 



1/24 




40 Ship's Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 19. 



(of fragment) 20 1/2" 

(of gear) 3' 

(of teeth) 1/2" 

(of teeth) 1 " 



Gear, worm, (MG-3F) 
1 fragment 
Length 

Projected diameter 
Height 
Spacing 
None 

This metal fragment was broken from a gear 
projected to be approximately 3' in dia- 
meter. 
Poor 

Gear, worm 



Scale 



1/4 




Article: 
Recovered: 

Size : 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition 



Pipe, lead (MG-6M) 
4 sections (labeled A 
A -- Length 

Outside diameter 
B — Length 

Outside diameter 
C -- Length 

Outside diameter 
D -- Length 

Outside diameter 
None 

These sections of pipe were cut or torn 
from the wreckage. One pipe appears to 
be two sections joined (Figure 20. C). 
Good. Several, however, have considerable 
concretion on them. 



B, C, D 


below) 


21 1/2" 




2 " 




14 1/2" 




2 " 




60 " 




3 




75 " 




1 7/8" 





Ship's Equipment 41 



Figure 20 



Pipe, lead (MG-6M) 




.V ~;l 



U\ 



(A) Outside 
diameter 2" 
Scale: 1/4 



B 

(B) Outside 
diameter 2'^ 
Scale: l/4 









(C) Outside 
diameter 3" 
Scale: l/lO 



A.; 



h^' 



V 



E 



(D) Outside 
diameter 1 7/8 
Scale: l/lO 



42 Ship^s Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered 

Size ' 



Markings : 

Description 

Condition: 



Porthole (MG-7C) 

2 

Width (at outside of larger rim) 12^' 

Width (at inside of larger rim) 9 1/2" 

Width (at outside of smaller rim) 8 1/2" 

Width (at inside of smaller rim) 7 3/4" 

Thickness 1" 

J. Abbott &; C£. , Gates head - on - Tyne is on 

outer rim of one porthole. 

Made of brass. Joined to hull by six rivets 

Movable ring slightly bent. 

Good 



Figure 21. 



Porthole 
Scale: 1/3 




Ship's Equipment 43 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Portlight (MG-7C) 

1 

Length (at outer rim) 18 

Length (at inner rim) 15" 

¥idth (at outer rim) 15 Y/V 

Width (at inner rim) 12 l/2" 

None 

Ferrous portlight made of two rings that 

were joined to the ship's hull plating by 

sixteen rivets. 

Good 



Figure 22. 



Portlight 
Scale: 1/3 




44 Ship's Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



53 



45 
25 



5/16' 



1/4 



Racks, towel (MG-3B) 

1 three piece unit 

1 single unit 

Length (of single unit) 

Diameter (of tubing in single unit) 

Length (of tubing in three piece 

unit) 
Length (of support) 
Diameter (of tubing in three piece 

unit) 
None 

Both units are made of brass with screw 
threaded wall fasteners that were affixed 
to the bulkhead by three screws. The 
single unit with its thicker tubing is 
sturdier than the three piece unit. The 
three piece unit has a support that now 
shows no evidence as to how it might 
have been attached. 

Single unit is in excellent condition. The 
three piece unit is badly twisted and bent 
(See Figure 23). 



Figure 23 



Rack, towel 




Ship's Equipment 45 



Figure 24 



Detail of wall mounts of single unit rack, 
Full scale 








Article: 
Recovered: 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Valve, check (MG-2W) 

1 

Diameter 4" 

N2 is stamped on the top of the handle. 

A brass valve with a leather flap attached 

on one side by two screws. 

Good. The leather flap is missing. 



Figure 25. 



Valve, check 
Scale: 1/2 





46 Ship's Equipment 



Article : 
Recovered 

Size : 



Markings : 

Description 

Condition: 



Valve, spigot (MG-2W) 
1 

Length (from flange to nozzle) 10 " 
Height (overall) 6 1/2" 

Diameter (of pipe) 2 " 

Diameter (of flange) 5 " 

2, 2.9 cirid 4 are stamped on the upper por- 
tion of the gate cover flange. A smaller 
number 7. is on the opposite side. 
A spigot valve has a brass mounting flange 
and nozzle. The top gate cover and bolts 
are missing. 

Excellent. The on-off valve is free and 
it appears that it would work. 



Figure 26. 



Valve, spigot 
Scale: 1/3 





^i^f■^»i^tf!?'w»l■iJ^lf|^,■^,•|4l.■^■'.*.^wBP»«^ 



Vii tit r*- • --fi ^ll^• "'"'•''' *'^''' ^1* 




Top view 



Ship's Equipment 47 



Figure 26. 



(continued) 




2ZQZZZ2ZZ2ZZZZZZZE2&Z 



{TTTzzzzzzziznzzL 




Side view 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Wheel, ship's (MG-3K) 
1 section 

Length (of fragment) 28 " 
Width (of fragment) 1 1/2" 
Diameter (projected) 36 " 
None 

Rim and spokes are iron with ebony spacers, 
A projection of the arc around the wheel 
fragment indicates that the original wheel 
was 36" in diameter. Figuring from the 
space between the two existing spokes, 
the wheel originally had eight. 
Fair. Due to deterioration only this frag- 
ment remains intact. 



Figure 27. 



Wheel, ship's 
Scale: 1/3 




48 Ship's Equipment 



Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Windlass (MG-7H) 

1 

Diameter (of pawl rim) 25" 

Diameter (of purchase rim) 19" 

None 

The barrel section of the windlass seems 

to have been stripped or torn out leaving 

fragments of wood inside the otherwise 

completely metallic section. 

Poor, badly rusted. 



Figure 28. 



Windlass 
Not to scale 




PLATE IV 




^ 



ix::' 



A, Fig. 4 Assembly, unidentified 




B. Fig. 6 Binnacle 



C. Fig. 10 Box, bilge 
strainer 



PLATE V 




A. Fig. 26 Valve, spigot 




B. Fig. 28 Windlass 



FIREARMS AND ORDNANCE 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Weight: 

Markings : 

Description 



Condition: 



Bolt, 12 pounder Whitworth (MG-2M) 

75 

Length 9 1/2" 

10 1/2 - 12 pounds 

None 

The bolts were originally packed in cases 

of ten (See Figure 30), The major variance 

in weights is probably due to differences 

in the metal density. The Whitworth rifle 

that used these bolts was far advanced for 

its time with exceptional accuracy and a 

range of more than 9,500 yards. It was 

developed in England by Sir Joseph Whitworth 

(Ripley, 1970). 

Good 



Figure 29. 



Bolt, 12 pounder Whitworth 
Scale: 1/2 




Figure 30, 



Whitworth packing case 
Scale: 1/4 




50 Firearms and Ordnance 



Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 
Markings : 



Description 



Condition: 
Remarks: 



Bullet, Enfield rifle (MG-4T) 
Several hundred 
.577 caliber 

Raised markings are found on the inside of 
the cavity at the base of the bullet. Fig- 
ure 31 illustrates the types found to date. 
Most of the Enfield bullets still have box- 
wood plugs in their bases. A large number 
of bullets still remain in the aft section 
of the wreck. They were found in piles 
with their packing eroded or torn away. 
Good 

See Appendix I for a statistical analysis 
of .577 caliber Enfield bullet measurements. 



Figure 31. 



Enfield rifle bullet with raised markings 
found inside the base cavities. 
Full scale 














52 Firearms and Ordnance 



Figure 33. 



Mold, Enfield bullet 
Full scale 




/ •. —i 



^; 



n. 



Front 



Sid. 



Firearms and Ordnance 53 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 
Remarks : 



Pistol, Unwin and Rodgers knife (MG-7I) 

1 

.28 caliber 

None 

This Unwin and Rodgers knife pistol has two 

slots approximately 3 1/2" long and 1/4" 

wide located on either side of the trigger 

mount where the partial remains of the two 

blades are still visible. The trigger is 

decayed, and the hammer is missing. The 

3 3/8" long barrel is German silver and has 

two starlike stamps on the left side. There 

are eight pins protruding from either side. 

These originally held the stag grips. Ten 

small .28 caliber shot were found in the 

capbox built into the rear of the hilt. 

Good 

Since only one knife pistol was recovered 

with shots still in the capbox, it is assumed 

that this item belonged to a person on board 

the ship and was not part of the cargo. 



Figure 34. 



Pistol, Unwin and Rodgers knife 
Full scale 




Bottom 



54 Firearms and Ordnance 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size : 



Markings : 



Description: 



Condition: 
Remarks : 

Figure 35. 



Rifle, Tower Enfield (MG-A) 

50 complete rifles 

215 fragments broken as follows: 

30 butt fragments 

24 butt and center fragments 

128 center and forearm fragments 

14 forearm fragments 

19 miscellaneous short fragments 

Caliber 



Length 
Length 

Average length 
Average length 

Average length 

Average length 



.577 
58" 
48" 
9 1/2" 



(of rifle) 

(of carbine) 

(of butt fragments) 

(of butt and center 

fragments) 27 1/2" 

(of center and fore- 
arm fragments) 40" 
(of forearm frag- 
ments) 18" 
Three rifles that have ferrous butt plates, 
trigger guards, trigger housings, and nose 
caps, are stamped on hind stock Ward & Sons 
Makers, Birmn (See Figure 41). 
The rifles were originally packed in cases 
of twenty-four (See Figure 38). One of the 
boards forming the top of a case was paint- 
ed with the mark illustrated in Figure 40. 
Leather shoulder straps were packed in one 
end of the boxes (See Figure 39). The 215 
fragments could combine to form at least 
139 Enfield rifles. Collectively, a pro- 
jected total of 215 Enfield rifles were 
recovered from the MODERN GREECE by the 
State of North Carolina. An undetermined 
number of Enfield rifles had been recovered 
by others before the State claimed jurisdic- 
tion. Many of the rifles were broken dur- 
ing recovery. All the rifles are similar 
except for the three having the ferrous 
guards and butt plates noted above. 
Vary from excellent to fragmentary. 
See Figures 41-44 for details of the rifles. 

Carbine, Tower Enfield 
Model 1862 
Scale: 1/8 



Firearms and Ordnance 55 



Figure 36. 



Rifle, Tower Enfield 

Model 1862 (observed on several lock plates 

during cleaning). 

Scale: 1/8 




Figure 37. 



Butt, center, and forearm 
fragments of Enfield rifle 
Scale: 1/8 




Figure 38. 



Enfield rifles recovered in cases of twentv- 
four. '^ 



56 Firearms and Ordnance 



Figure 39. 



Shoulder straps found packed in rifle cases 
Scale: l/2 




— «.<■ — -. 



Petail of Enfield rifles: 



Firearms and Ordnance 57 



Figure 41. 






Maker's mark found on 3 En- 
fields having no brass parts. 
Scale: 2/1 



<5» 



/R^ 



.^ 




Figure 42. Nipple protector 
and chain 
Full scale 




Figure 43. Enfield lock 
Full scale 




Figure 44. 



Rifle shipping plug 
Full scale 



58 Firearms and Ordnance 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size: 
Weight: 

Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Shot, 12 pounder Whitworth case (MG-2M) 
1 box containing 10 projectiles 
Length 9" 

7 1/2, 8, 8 1/4, 8 3/4, and 9 1/4 pounds 
are recorded. 
None 

The iron projectiles were packed unarmed 
with their cavities empty and without fuses. 
They all have similar dimensions but vary 
in weight. The variance of the weights re- 
corded could be caused by differences in 
cavity sizes, decay, and metal density. 
Good 



Figure 45. 



Shot, 12 pounder Whitworth case 
Scale: 1/2 



^^x^\ 



I I I M 






PLATE VI 




A. Figs. 29 and 45 Bolt, twelve pounder Whitworth 
and Shot, twelve pounder Whitworth case 



i 








v...-":;:,: 












' 
















1 

! 














'■ I 


i 


I ^^^j^H^^HRv 


^ 




1 


\ 






1 






1 i 


^ 


r 












1 1 

1 i 
i : 






1 










^^^H 


■ . ■■■ 




6 INCHES 


1 


1 1 


1 1 1 i 


i.„.^.„ 





B. Fig. 32 Caps, 
percussion 



r ■ ';,'.■, ■■ .. J , ■ i 



.•V 







• •I 

li 



C, Fig. 34 Pistol, Unwin and 
Rodgers knife 



PLATE VII 




A. Fig. 38 Enfield rifles recovered in cases of twenty-four 




B. Fig. 40 Rifle case cover 



:jn^i 




C. Fig. 41 Maker's mark found on three Enfields 



BULK MATERIALS 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Weight: 
Markings : 



Description 
Condition: 
Figure 46. 



Ingots, lead (MG-2L) 

70 

69 Type I 

1 Type II 
See Table I for complete dimensions, weights, 
and locations of marking on lead ingots. 
Average width 5 3/4" 
Average length 33 " 
Average height 2 1/2" 
Average 142.50 pounds 
There are two different marks. 
Type I - Bagillt Works, Newton Keates & 
Co . , Liverpool is stamped on 69 of the 
ingots. All are numbered, and combinations 
of £, FD, EE, and D are on 61 of them (See 
Figure 47). 

Type II - Bagillt Works , Newton Lyon & £o. , 
Liverpool is stamped on one ingot. This 
ingot is numbered 399 with FD and D stamp- 
ed on the reverse side. 

Long and narrow with ends molded so that 
they might serve as handles. 
Excellent 



Ingots 
Scale : 



lead 
1/6 




Type I 




Type II 



li'i.'rt- 



60 Bulk Materials 

Figure 47. Letters, numbers, and marks on lead ingots. 
Full scale 









Table i 

Dimensions, weijschts, and locations of markings on lead injgots . 
U.S. weights and measurements used. 



Width 

5 7/8" 

5 7/8" 

6" 

5 3/4" 

5 3/4" 

6" 

6" 

5 7/8" 

5 3/4" 



Length 

32 7/8" 
33" 
33" 
34" 

33 3/4" 
33 1/2" 
33" 

33 5/8" 
33 7/8" 



Height 
2 1/2" 
2 1/4" 
2 3/4" 
2 3/4" 
2 3/4" 
2 1/2" 
2 1/2" 
2 1/2" 
2 1/2" 



Weight 
149.75 
147.50 
141.75 
144.50 
148.25 
128.00 
152.50 
145.25 
133.50 



Markings 



a ' 


) 




o <^ ^ 


J 




Oo' 


) 




o . . 


; 




Q" i " 


) 




0^ • 


) 




Cs - 


) 




. 


) 




Q «• 


_J 



Bulk Materials 61 

Table I (continued) 

Dimensions, weights, and locations of markings on lead injgots . 

U.S. weights and measurements used. 



Width 


Length 


H( 


2ight 


Weight 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


3/4 


146.00 


5 1/2" 


33" 


2 


5/8' 


140.25 


5 3/4" 


32 5/8" 


2 


3/8' 


148.50 


5 7/8" 


34" 


2 


1/2' 


145.50 


6" 


33" 


2 


1/2' 


153.50 


5 3/4" 


33 1/2" 


2 


3/4' 


144.00 


5 3/4" 


33 1/2" 


2 


1/2' 


137.50 


6" 


33 1/8" 


2 


3/8' 


148.50 


6" 


33 1/8" 


2 


1/2' 


141.00 


5 7/8" 


33 1/2" 


2 


1/4' 


142.00 


5 1/2" 


33" 


2 


1/2' 


135.00 


5 3/4" 


33 3/4" 


2 


5/8' 


144.50 


5 3/4" 


33 1/8" 


2 


1/2' 


145.00 


5 3/4" 


33 1/4" 


2 


1/4' 


148.00 


5 3/4" 


33 1/4" 


2 


1/4' 


132.50 


6" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/2' 


153.75 


5 5/8" 


33" 


2 


3/4' 


152.75 


5 3/4" 


33 1/4" 


2 


5/8' 


152.00 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


1/2' 


132.00 


5 3/4" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/4" 


146.00 


6" 


33 1/4" 


2 


5/8' 


148.50 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


1/2' 


148.75 



Markings 






) 


. 


) 




Cs »-* 


:> 




(3 -- "> 


^ 




Ct \ 


) 


(t ao 


^ 




Oo 


■) 




Cf 


) 


C5 a - 


) 




e- . 


) 




(S e 


) 




C3 »* 


) 


a ". 


-) 


C'i » 


) 




c% 


) 




(s »• ro 


) 




C^ "> 


; 




c^ 


) 


V-» fD 


) 




cs 


) 




c§ 


) 




Q e 


) 



62 Bulk Materials 

Table I (continued) 

Dimensions, weights, and locations of markings on lead ingots . 

U.S. weights and measurements used. 



Width 


Length 


Hi 


sight 


Weight 


5 7/8" 


33 1/4" 


2 


3/4" 


127.50 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


147.00 


6" 


33 3/4" 


2 


3/4" 


146.75 


5 5/8 « 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


141.00 


5 7/8" 


33" 


2 


1/4" 


133.50 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


132.00 


6" 


32 7/8" 


2 


1/2" 


151.75 


5 3/4" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/2" 


140.50 


6" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


148.50 


5 7/8" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/2" 


132.00 


5 1/2" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


149.50 


6" 


34" 


2 


3/4" 


144.50 


5 3/4" 


33 1/4" 


2 


3/8" 


130.25 


5 5/8" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/2" 


134.50 


5 7/8" 


33 1/2" 


2 


1/2" 


142.50 


5 3/4" 


32 3/4" 


2 


1/2" 


133.00 


5 3/4" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


141.50 


6" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


148.25 


6" 


33 1/4" 


2 


1/2" 


147.00 


5 3/4" 


33 3/4" 


2 


1/2" 


136.50 


6" 


33" 


2 


1/2" 


149.00 


5 3/4" 


34" 


2 


1/2" 


138.00 



Markings 



<l 






•vr 



d 



d 



d 



a 



.3 «- 



d 






d 






(H 



^ ^6 



Q 
C 



J^ 



V4 -%■» 






3 



CIZZZ) 



D 



D 



3 



c^ ^>. ) 



3 



J 



J 



3 







D 












Bulk Materials 63 
Table I (continued) 

Dimensions, weights, and locations of markinjgs on lead ingots 
U.S. weights and measurements used. 



Width 
5 7/8 
5 7/8 
5 3/4 
5 3/4 
5 7/8 
5 3/4 
5 3/4 
5 5/8 
6" 

5 3/8 
5 3/4 
6" 
6" 
6" 

5 5/8" 
5 3/4" 
5 3/4" 



Length 

33 1/4" 

33 7/8" 

33" 

33" 

33" 

33" 

32 3/4" 
33" 
33" 

33 1/2" 
33 1/2" 

32 3/4" 
34" 
33" 
33" 

33 1/2" 
33 1/2" 



Height 


Weight 


2 3/8" 


143.75 


2 3/4' 


158.00 


2 3/4" 


147.50 


2 1/2' 


136.75 


2 3/8' 


137.00 


2 3/4" 


147.00 


2 1/2' 


139.75 


2 1/4' 


138.50 


2 5/8' 


144.50 


2 1/2' 


134.00 


2 1/2' 


140.50 


2 1/2' 


142.50 


2 3/4' 


141.50 


2 1/2' 


142.00 


2 3/4' 


139.75 


2 1/2' 


134.50 


2 1/4' 


155.50 



Markings 



Vie m 


:> 




CI 


) 




CI 3 


:> 




C5 - 


) 




a " 


) 




CI "« 


;> 




CI s 


:> 




CI 3 


) 




C! "<. 


:> 




(1 s 


) 


Cl * 


) 




C2 "ii 


) 




CSs 


) 




CI 2 


) 




Cf- ) 


CC 


! ^ 




Ct "o 


> 



64 Bulk Materials 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Weight : 
Markings : 



Description 



Condition: 
Figure 48. 



Average length 
Average width 
Average width 
Average length 
Average width 



14 15/16 
4 11/16 
4 5/16 

4 5/16 
20 3/4 

5 9/16 



Ingots, tin (MG-2K) 

43 

See Table II for the complete dimensions, 

weights, and markings of the tin ingots. 

Average length (of side A) 

(of side B) 

(of side C) 

(of side D) 

(of top) 

(of top) 
Average 58,85 pounds 

T, Bolitho &; Sons , Penzance (See Figure 49) 
is molded in one end of the ingot. On 9, 
however, it is turned sideways on the end. 
Chvandour beneath a lamb holding a banner 
appears on the other end. There are three 
variations of this lamb logo. (See Figures 
50, 51, and 52). £, S, and A (See Figure 
48 and Table II) are stamped on 23 of the 
43 ingots beneath T. Bolitho & Sons , Pen - 
zance . 

The molds, in which the ingots were cast, 
were laid out on an irregular surface which 
caused them to tilt. The markings were 
cast by resting the stamp on the molten 
surface and then removing it as the tin 
hardened and cooled. 
Excellent 

Letters as they appear on tin ingots. 






Figure 49 



Bulk Materials 65 

Foundry or distributor's marking in relief 
on mold. 
Full scale 



I fl 



r 



T EOLITH 
& 
ENZANC 









.tr-T 



Figure 50. 



Type 1 manufacturer's insignia in relief 
on mold. 
Full scale 




66 Bulk Materials 
Figure 51. 



Type 2 manufacturer's insignia 
Full scale 



'iL\::^:^A;:,:::iL::i^:^.iii^,;L^ 




■ -i - -• > 



Figure 52. 



V^^'^5^*?T^^t^^'?^ ^ ?^?!^ ^^ ^ 



Type 3 manufacturer's insignia (Note dif- 
ference in banners). 
Full scale 



'-^ (^^'f^^^^^^^^^fSi^ ^ 




CHYANDOUR 



?J' 



f^' 



r,.- 



■ ^w^^^ ^a^^^.yjj*^,'?^^ ^^ ' 



Bulk Materials 67 



Figure 53. 



Top view of tin ingot 
Scale: 1/4 



;il<> .■■;,' asi -• /■. ■.^"' '' .■r-'^'y '...".■}. 
••* til 



i3SS&&33&ia«M^^iiMittU 



:3«<4lL 



fciimiiiiti iiiaMH'iii 




Figure 54. 



Side view of tin ingot. 
Scale: 1/4 



y^'^^^^r 



<f^**T!'^" 



■*<^ 



■ " ■yg v. 



\ 



.^:i'>H»^- 



^.^;„^ 



r i.f • 




Figure 55. 



Bottom view of tin ingot. 
Scale: 1/4 





B^9F 




y^" " ^ 


■K.!'-:... 


R 


.«.«*♦:..,.- 


t**/i»»o' 


1 


II 


.,,<-n*»iU. 1 




-rri'-H 


m 







idlOk. 



■,rt'»flf> — 



.♦A*/*"'*-'- 



-<4h:'*^ 




111 B>-«.|MJlMI^ 



68 Bulk Materials 



Table II Dimensions, weights, and markings of tin ingots. U.S. 
weights and measurements used. 

Side^ 











2 




Mark 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Type 


Weight 


ings 


15.13 


15.13 


4.63 


4.63 


I 


68. 


— — 


13.88 


13.88 


4.75 


4.75 


I 


68. 


— 


15.00 


14.88 


4.38 


4.38 


I 


61.5 


S 


15.00 


15.00 


4.25 


4.25 


I 


55.25 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.25 


4.13 


I 


59.00 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.13 


4.13 


I 


57.75 


— 


15.00 


15.00 


4.50 


4.63 


I 


60.5 


-- 


15.00 


15.00 


4.25 


4.25 


I 


55.0 


--. 


15.13 


15.13 


4.50 


4.50 


I 


56.5 


--. 


15.13 


15.00 


4.25 


4.25 


I 


51.5 


p 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.25 


I 


53.0 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.38 


I 


56.0 


s 


15.38 


15.38 


3.75 


3.75 


I 


57.5 


^!c3 


15.50 


15.38 


3.88 


3.88 


I 


60.00 


* 


15.38 


15.50 


4.00 


3.34 


I 


58.25 


A 


15.50 


15.38 


4.00 


3.88 


I 


54.0 


A 


13.75 


13.75 


4.63 


4.75 


II 


57.0 


P 


13.75 


13.75 


4.63 


4.63 


II 


64.0 


S 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.38 


II 


58.25 


— — 



For indication of which side is A, B, C, or D see Figure 53. 
Individual dimensions are not given for the length and width 
of the top, because the variance is insignificant. 

2 
Type I, II, and III refer to Figures 48, 49, and 50, which 

show the three slightly different logos. 

3 

'''Indicates that the stamp T. Bolitho & Sons is placed side- 
wise. 



Bulk Materials 69 



Table 


II: (continued) 










Side 


■■ 










Mark 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Type 


Weight 


ings 


13.75 


13.75 


4.63 


4.63 


II 


57.5 


P 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.50 


II 


66.75 


S 


14.88 


14.88 


4.38 


4.38 


II 


69.0 


S 


13.88 


13.25 


4.88 


4.75 


II 


60.5 


s 


15.25 


15.25 


4.50 


4.50 


II 


68.0 


- — 


15.00 


15.00 


4.25 


4.25 


II 


61.5 


-- 


14.88 


14.88 


4.38 


4.25 


II 


62.5 


— - 


15.13 


15.25 


4.38 


4.38 


II 


59.5 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.38 


II 


54.5 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.50 


4.38 


II 


53.5 


p 


15.25 


15.25 


4.50 


4.38 


II 


49.25 


p 


15.00 


15.00 


4.50 


4.50 


II 


64.5 


p 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.25 


II 


56.0 


p 


15.00 


15.00 


4.13 


4.25 


II 


58.0 


*!« 


15.00 


15.00 


4.25 


4.38 


II 


58.5 


^- 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.25 


II 


56.5 


* 


15.25 


15.38 


3.75 


3.88 


II 


57.5 


* 


15.38 


15.38 


3.88 


3.88 


II 


54.0 


A 


15.50 


15.50 


3.88 


3.75 


II 


54.0 


* 


15.25 


15.25 


4.50 


4.50 


III 


74.00 


s 


15.00 


15.00 


4.63 


4.25 


III 


56.0 


p 


15.00 


14.88 


4.88 


4.50 


III 


56.75 


* 


15.00 


15.00 


4.38 


4.25 


III 


56.0 


* 


15.13 


15.00 


4.38 


4.38 


III 


55.25 


* 



70 Bulk Materials 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size : 



tin plated steel (MG-5I) 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 56. 



(of single sheet) 
(of sheets per case) 



16" 

11" 

4" 

0.026" 
125 



Sheets , 
17 cases 
Length 
Width 
Height 
Thickness 
Number 
None 

The tin plated sheets were found still 
in their wooden packing crates. The dark- 
er area in the illustration is the packing 
case. Several cases still remain in the 
wreckage. 
Fair. The packing case is badly deteriorated. 

Tin plated steel sheets with packing case. 
Scale: 1/4 




Article: 


Wire (MG- 


.3X) 






Recovered: 


1 








Size: 


Diameter 


(of 


spool) 


18" 




Height 


(of 


spool) 


36" 




Gauge 


(of 


steel wire) 


.055 




Gauge 


(of 


copper wire) 


.125 



Bulk Materials 71 



Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 

Figure 57. 



None 

One spool of wire consisting of steel wire 

over a core of copper wire. 

Good. Intact but covered with concretion, 

Spool of wire 
Scale: 1/8 




PLATE VIII 




-*"•<* •'•* , ^ , 




■^'' 



":ii_: 



A. Fig. 46 Ingots, lead 




Figs. 53, 54, and 55 Ingots, tin 




\ 




/' 





C. Fig. 56 Tin plated steel 
sheets with packing case 



D. Fig, 57 Spool of wire 



SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 



Depressors, tongue (MG-2G) 

2 

Length 5" 

Width 3/4'' 

None 

Made of brass and very ornate. Design on 

handle is readily visible. 

Excellent 



Figure 58. 



Depressor, tongue 
Full scale 




Front 





•*^ H^'^ 




Back 



Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Handle, surgical knife (MG-2F) 
1 

Length 4" 
Width 1/2" 
None 

This wooden handle was apparently used with 
a fixed scalpel blade. The blade had dete- 
riorated. Two pins protrude from the han- 
dle. 
Good 



74 Surgical Instruments 



Figure 59. 



Handle, surgical knife 
Full scale 




Article: 
Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Remarks : 



Kits, surgeon's medical (MG-4Y) 
6 

Length 16 1/4 " 
Width 4 1/4 '^ 
Depth 2 3/16" 
None 

The rectangular mahogany kit has brass fit- 
tings. The veneered lid, which is secured 
by two hinges, has a brass shield centered 
on it. There are two brass hasps located 
on either side of the front with a lock set 
in thfe center front. The boxes were glued 
together with thin metal or wood fasteners 
across each corner. The kits were found 
broken apart and partially disassembled 
with several medical instruments concreted 
to the inside of several of the wooden 
fragments . 

Good to fragmentary. 

It is expected that all the surgical instru- 
ments recovered were shipped in the medical 
boxes and were scattered when the vessel 
sank. 



Figure 60. 



Kit, surgeon's medical 
Scale: 1/4 




76 Surgical Instruments 



Figure 62. 



Probe, surgeon's 
Full scale 



wwft«^p— Wi^wjp— 8B««awww -in- JBm gfgwwT^^ppjiii'yiriwyw 



Top 



Bottom 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Saws, bone (handle only) (MG-2C) 

2 

Length (of body) 3 1/2" 

Width 4 1/4" 

Thickness 1" 

None 

The handles are checkered gutta-percha with 

brass screws for attaching the blades. 

Excellent 



Figure 63. 



Saw, bone (handle only) 
Full scale 




Surgical Instruments 77 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 



Scalpels, folding (MG-2B) 

47 

(of illustrated scalpels) 

A -- Length 3 5/8" 

Width 3/8" tapering to 5/16" 
B — Length 3" 

Width 9/16" tapering to 3/8" 
C -- Length 3 3/4" 

Width 1/2" 
D — Length 4 1/4" 

Width 1/2" 
E -- Length 3 3/4" 

Width 9/16" 
None 

The gutta-percha handles are intact, but 
the blades have completely deteriorated. 
Good. 



Figure 64. 



Scalpels, folding 
Full scale 




E 



78 Surgical Instruments 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 
Figure 65. 



Scalpel, pocket (MG-2B) 

1 

Length 4 1/2" 

Diameter 7/16" tapering to 5/16" 

None 

Scalpel is gutta-percha. It is smooth on 

the exterior with a groove in the middle 

and at the tip resembling a fountain pen. 

The sections are threaded and can easily 

be screwed apart. The blade mount is 

slotted allowing for the use of various 

blades . 

Good, except for the deteriorated blade. 

Scalpel, pocket 
Full scale 




^^^r^imfimm 



'.iBtti 







Closed 



J ill i j i^p . 1 1 j; ^ ,%i I .p.j i i .j . i ;i. i ivtf L.^ i .. ' ,!; 








Open 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Scarifiers (MG-2G) 
2 

Length 1 1/8 
Width 1 2/5" 
Height 1 2/5" 

W. &; H. Hutchinson , Sheffield is inscribed 
on the face of the lid. 

Twelve slots appear on the top of the brass 
scarifier. These were apparently for 12 
tiny sharp blades, which have decomposed. 
The blades were probably cocked and trig- 
gered by a spring action, when one pushed 
or pulled the button on the side. The 
height of the blades appears to have been 
adjustable. 

Excellent. The lid is still detachable and 
the small bolt can be removed. There is 
very little corrosion. 



Surgical Instruments 79 



Figure 66. 



Scarifier 
Full scale 














Inside bottom 




Bottom 



# 




Side of cap 




Right side 





Back 



S*^FS 



l!iL'-.W,*^U-M|J!!"J 
•ir'iiliriii'-^''-'^''"^H 



Movable part 



11^' 


■f' 




v.'.;; 
«■/■■•.' 


• 


• 





Front 



Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Screws , 


tourniquet 


8 




Height 


3 7/8" 


Width 


1 7/8" 


w. e^ H. 


Hutchinson 



(MG-2D) 



> Sheffield is inscribed 
on the top of the screw handle. 
The tourniquet screws are brass. When they 
were recovered, several fragments of white 
webbing were still attached to the rollers 
and small buckles. These have been fully 
reconstructed in the drawing. 
Good. The belt fragments, however, have 
deteriorated since recovery. 



80 Surgical Instruments 



Figure 67. 



Screw^ tourniquet 
Full scale 
Detail 
Scale: 2/1 




Detail of 
screw handle 



Article : 
Recovered: 
Size : 

Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Snips, bone (MG-2E) 
6 

Length 5 3/8" 
Width 1/4" 
None 

A checkered pattern is visible on the illuS' 
trated snip. The snips are side cutting. 
Illustrated snip will still open and close; 
however, some of the examples are badly- 
decayed, particularly around the handles. 



Surgical Instruments 81 



Figure 68. 



Snips , bone 
Full scale 




PLATE IX 




6 INCHES 



A. Figs. 58 and 62 Depressor, tongue and probe, surgeon's 




B. Fig. 60 Kit, surgeon's medical 




C. Fig. 61 Knife, amputation 



PLATE X 




A. Figs. 64 and 65 Scalpels, folding and scalpel, pocket 







__ 6 INCHES 

B. Fig. 66 Scarifier 











j 

i 

1 

1 






. 


I ! 

i ■ ' i 

' ; 1 • 








- 1 ' 1 i 


1 




g 










*f 








i 
1 






■" 


■Bj 






J— 






1 








1 


' 




■■■■h n^n^iiiiimi^ 






6 INCHES 






^ 






i 


1 



C. Fig. 67 Screw, tourniquet 



TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 69. 



Axes (MG-3R) 

12 

Maximum length 

Maximum width 

None 

Axes are steel. 



(of fragments) 6 1/4" 
(of fragments) 3 1/2" 

They were packed in a 

One still 



material resembling tar paper, 
has some clinging to it. 
Poor. Badly deteriorated. 

Ax 

Full scale 




Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Bits, flat drill (MG-R) 

38 

Nine cutting edges L 1/4" to 1/4". 

None 

The bits are cast steel with square tangs 

The tangs fit snugly in the chuck holes 

of the ratchet drills (See Figure 77 for 

the ratchet drills). 

Vary from good to fair. A number are 

deteriorated at either the tang or shaft. 



84 Tools and Implements 



Figure 70. 



Bits, flat drill 
Full scale 








IBW.-«f .Wl',,<...J JWI.»J.. W 






ifciriitifnmii—i 'il^iYn Bii 




Article : 
Recovered : 

Size : 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 

Figure 71. 



Tools and Implements 85 

Chisels, cold (MG-S) 

11 

Length 10^' 

Width range (of blade) 1/2^' to 1" 

None 

Ferrous metal. One is a cape type (Figure 

71. C) chisel. 

Poor 

Chisels, cold 
Scale: 1/2 





B 




.;:..-4i 



*- 1 ■: ''' "*v*iS ■' 







E 




86 Tools and Implements 

Article: Chisels, wood (MG-P) 

Recovered: Approximately 1,600 in three types. Exact 

quantities of each type are unascertainable 
without injuring many of the artifacts which 
are still in concreted bundles. 

Size: A wide range of cutting edges is represented 

from 1/8" to 1 1/8". The length and tangs 
overall are proportionate to the size of the 
cutting edge. 

Markings: The majority of the chisels have manufactur- 
er's markings. A very few chisels have been 
observed that do not have markings. This 
number is so small that it is presumed that 
they were mistakes made during casting or 
factory seconds. Three different manufac- 
turers are represented. 

Type I Wrijght Holdsworth ^ Co. , Cast - 
steel is stamped on both sides of the shaft 
at the base of the neck (See Figures 72 and 
75), 

Type II -- John K. Turner & Co. , Sheffield 
is stamped on the unbeveled side of the shaft 
near the base of the neck with Caststeel on 
the reverse side (See Figures 73 and 75). 
Type III - C. Henry , Sheffield is stamped on 
one side of the shaft near the base of the 
neck. On chisels larger than 3/8" this logo 
is usually on the beveled side. On chisels 
smaller than 3/8" this is reversed (See Fig- 
ures 74 and 75). There are exceptions to 
this. 

Description: The chisels were shipped in bundles packed 

in wooden kegs or barrels. They were or- 
ganized in sets, bundled, and then wrapped 
in a type of paper unknown at this time. 
The exact number of sets of 10 or 12 chis- 
els in each bundle cannot be determined. 
The quality of the steel in the chisels var- 
ies. Types I and II are good quality metal; 
whereas, Type III is of a poorer grade. 

Condition: Good to poor. The chisels are badly corrod- 
ed particularly at the cutting blades. The 
quality of the metal partly accounts for the 
deterioration. The Type III chisels are in 
the poorest condition. 

Remarks: Wood gouges were occasionally packed with 

chisels . 



Tools and Implements 87 



Figure 72 



Chisel, wood 
(Type I) 
Full scale 



Figure 73. Chisel, wood (Type II) 
Full scale 




r V 




4 



;( 



li. 




I? 





Reverse 



Front 



Side 



Front 



Side 



88 Tools and Implements 
Figure 74. 



Chisels, wood (Type III) 
Full scale 




PI 



I, 










Front 



Side 



Front 



Side 



Tools and Implements 89 



Figure 75. 



Details of maker's marks on wood chisels. 
Scale: 2/1 



Type 1 



Type II 



Wft'GHr KOLOtWD«TH i CO. 
cmrSTfCL 



Type III 




/<^. 




JOHN K. TO^NCA 





Article: 


Dies, pipe (MG-W) 








Recovered: 


7 










Size: 


A — Threads 
Length 
Width 


(per 


inch) 


21 


1 3/16 
3/4 




For use 


with 






1/4 




B — Threads 


(per 


inch) 


21 






Length 








1 3/16 




Width 








3/4 




For use 


with 






1/4 




C -- Threads 


(per 


inch) 


18 






Length 








1/8 




.Width 








11/16 




For use 


with 






3/8 




D — Threads 


(per 


inch) 


11 






Length 








1 1/2 




Width 








1 




For use 


with 






5/8 




E -- Threads 


(per 


inch) 


10 






Length 








1 1/2 




Width 








1 




For use 


with 






3/4 



pipe 



pipe 



pipe 



pipe 



pipe 



90 Tools and Implements 



Size: 



Markings : 

Description: 

Condition: 
Figure 76. 



1 7/8 " 
1 3/8 V 
1 ^' pipe 

1 15/16" 
1 1/4 " 



(continued) 

F -- Threads (per inch) 8 

Length 

Width 

For use with 
G — Threads (per inch) 8 

Length 

Width 

For use with 1 " pipe 

The dies are stamped with numbers 1 or 2 
to differentiate the left from the right 
half as well with the size pipe that they 
fitted. 

The dies are cast steel and have different 
thread counts. They appear to be part of 
a tap and die set (See Figure 99 for taps) 
Good 

Dies, pipe 
Full scale 






B 





Ul,l,.^ ' 



^? 









£ 



Tools and Implements 91 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description: 



Condition 



Drills, ratchet (MG-M) 
14 

Length range (of handles) 13 1/2" to 19" 
None 

The chuck portions of the cast steel 
drills are all the same with square holes 
that taper slightly inward. These chuck 
holes are the same size and shape as the 
tangs of the flat drill bits (See Figure 
70 for flat drill bits). These drills 
also fit with the pipe taps (See Figure 
99 for pipe taps). The top of the drill 
is hexagonal and tapers to a point. It 
is expected that this drill could be 
used in a press or with additional weights 
to increase the efficiency of the cutting 
edge of the bit. If these were aboard 
among the cargo, they were misplaced be- 
fore the drills were recovered. 
Fair. The moving parts do not work. Cor- 
rosion has given the metal a furrowed 
appearance. 



Figure 77 



Drills , ratchet 
Scale: 1/3 




m 




'k 


:.:•— 


ji'-fi 




'"'"^ *^ % 


•.v.. 






■'"•fiJJ 


ZT.r.-r^c'i-zyj'^ji: 


z==r.-- 



92 Tools and Implements 



Article: 
Recovered : 



Size: 
Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Files (MG-3I) 

Approximately 2,306 divided as follows: 
1 keg containing approximately 1,000 files 
(See Figure 78). 

35 clusters with a total of approximately 
1,150 files. 
156 loose files. 
Length range 5" to 19". 
None 

Three types of files are found packed in the 
same keg: flat, half-round, and triangular. 
There is a wide variety of sizes of each 
type. 

Although a number of files have been pre- 
served and are in good condition, the ma- 
jority still remains in concreted bundles. 



Figure 78. 



Keg of files 
Not to scale 



13 FLAT FILES 
ABOUT 30 



41i TRIANGULAR FILES 
ABOUT 45 




16 FLAT FILES 



19 ROUND FILES 



Tools and Implements 93 



Figure 79. 



Files 
Full scale 




Flat 




Half round 




Triangular 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Gauge, carpenter's marking (MG-Y) 
1 

Length 6 1/4" 
Height 2 1/2" 
None 

The gauge is ebony. Although the markings 
are now obliterated, the rule was probably- 
marked off in inches and divided into six- 
teenths. The rule fits snugly in a groove 
along the length of the tool. The entire 
section slides inside a block with a ten- 
sion thumb screw in its edge. The measured 
distance can be slid out and the block 
secured in place with the tension screw. 
A pin at the end of the rule would mark a 
wooden board in a straight line when the 
block strips on the riding edge prevent 
the wooden block from wearing out when it 
is used against rough wood. 
Excellent. The gauge is one of the best 
preserved artifacts from the MODERN GREECE. 



94 Tools and Implements 



Figure 80. 



Gauge, carpenter ^s marking 
Full scale 




|»A«WW!l|VJ/Ji:LH»Jlf55!lf(i'<f?^ 



M. 



si^iiiW;ii^^iii^^ 




«^^^?p^p^^f^^J^^ 



^' :■:■.-. ^^i^^M^M^^^MMii^^iJiii^^ 



Top view 



Tools and Implements 95 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size: 
Markings : 

Description; 



Condition: 



Gouges , wood (MG-Q) 

Approximately 746, mostly in sets of 12. 
1/8" to 1". 

M &; C is on all the gouges near the neck 
(See Figure 81). 

The gouges were recovered in clusters (See 
Figure 82). These clusters are composed 
of sets of 12 gouges concreted together. 
A set consists of one gouge in the 1", 7/8", 
3/4", 5/8", 1/2" sizes; two gouges in 3/8" 
and 1/4" size; and three of the 1/8" size. 
Although some of the gouges have been pre- 
served and are in good condition, the major- 
ity are still in concreted bundles. 



Figure 81. 



Figure 82. 



Detail of maker ^s mark on wood gouges 
Scale: 2/1 




Wood gouges in bundle 
Scale: 1/2 




Figure 83. 



Wood gouges 
Scale: 1/2 



96 Tools and Implements 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 

Figure 84« 



Hammers, cross peen machine (MG-V) 
9 

Maximum length 4 5/8" 
Maximum width 1 5/16" 
None 

They are made of steel. The hammers vary- 
slightly in size due to corrosion. 
Good. 

Hammer, cross peen machine 
Full scale 




Side 



Article : 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Handle, awl (MG-Z) 
1 

Length 3 1/2" 
Width 1 1/4V 
None 

The handle is wood with a brass ferrule. In 
size and shape it closely resembles a modern 
day awl handle. 

The wood and brass are both in excellent con- 
dition. 



Figure 85, 



Tools and Implements 97 



Handle, awl 
Full scale 




^ - ^ '■ ^ -f f ^. ^.^ ^ ^ ^. 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Handle, rasp (MG-2A) 
1 

Length 5 1/2" 
Width 1 1/4" 
None 

The handle is made of soft wood with a 
brass ferrule. Inside the ferrule there 
is a tapered rectangular hole in a mass 
of pine pitch or resin. This would fit 
and hold in place the tang of a rasp. 
The wood and the brass are both in excel- 
lent condition. 



Figure 86. 



Handle, rasp 
Full scale 



98 Tools and Implements 



Article: 
Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 87. 



Handsaws (MG-3M) 

50 blades in a bundle 
3 handle fragments 

Maximum length (of blade fragments) 15 5/8" 

(of blade fragments) 5 1/16" 
(per inch) 6 

(of handle body) 4" 
(of handle body) 4 1/4" 



Maximum width 
Teeth 

Approx. height 
Approx. width 



None 

The blades and handles were in one concreted 

bundle. Only three handle fragments were 

salvaged. These handles are badly decayed 

with few original lines remaining. The saw 

teeth are rip type. 

Poor 

Handsaw 
Scale: l/2 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Hatchets, broad (MG-K) 

13 

Maximum length (of fragments) 5" 

Maximum width (of fragments) 2 1/2" 

None 

Made of cast steel. Measurements taken from 

impressions in a concretion indicate that 

the blade was originally 4 1/2" wide. 

Badly deteriorated. 



Tools and Implements 



99 



Figure 88. 



Hatchet, broad 
Full scale 




Article: 
Recovered 
Size : 

Markings : 



Description 

Condition: 
Figure 89. 



Hoes (MG-3G) 

134 

Width range 

Height range 

Yates & Co. , 



8 1/2" to 9 1/2" 
7 1/4" to 8" 
Aston Manor and a 



stylized bird 



are on one side of the blade; on the other 
the number 4 and either of two types of star 
patterns appear (See Figures 91 and 92 for 
types of hoes and Figures 88, 89, and 90 
for details). 

The manufacturer's marking appears to have 
been hand stamped on the metal hoes, for 
the placement is not exactly the same on 
each hoe. 
Good 

Star markings (Type l) 
Scale: 2/1 









100 Tools and Implements 

Figure 90. Star marking 
(Type II) 
Scale: 2/1 



Figure 91. Maker ♦s mark 
Scale: 2/1 



m^iS(o)^{i,{d) 








Figure 92. Hoe (Type l) 
Scale: 1/2 




Tools and Implements 101 



Figure 93. 



Hoe (Type II ) 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Knives , 

2 

Length 

Length 

Length 

NON-XLL 



farrier's (MG-5T) 



(overall) 7 1/2" 

(of handle) 4 3/8^ 

(of blade) 1/2" 

is stamped on the blade. 

The knife has a horn hilt secured to the tang 
by two pins. The blade curves upward and 
rather abruptly to the side on the forward 
end where it is chopped off square. 
Good 



102 Tools and Implements 



Figure 94, 



Farrier's knife 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 

Figure 95. 



Ladles, lead (MG-l) 

3 

A — Length 16 1/2" 

Diameter (of bowl) 3" 
B -- Length 19" 

Diameter (of bowl) 4 1/2" 
C -- Length 23" 

Diameter (of bowl) 6" 
None 

The metal handles and bowls were probably 
constructed separately. 
Good 

Ladles, lead 
Scale: 1/4 




SEBS 



aas 





»«u ' VVJ '.-'^•"■' !„_■■"' f-2.~ 



Tools and Implements 103 



Article: 
Recovered: 



Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 
Figure 96, 



Picks (MG-0) 
91 of two types ; 

55 have mattock blade and a pick end 
36 have two pick ends 
Length range (from tip to tip) 
16 1/2" to 23 1/4" 

Width range (at handle attachment) 
2 1/2" to 2 3/4" 

Maximum width (of mattock blade) 
3/4" to 2 1/4" 
None 

All these ferrous picks are pitted and 
gouged. The corrosion is greatest at the 
handle attachment. The state of decompo- 
sition makes it difficult to ascertain 
the exact size of the picks. 
Fair to poor 



Picks 
Scale : 



1/4 





Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Screwdriver (MG-4W) 
1 

Length (overall) 12 1/4" 
Width (of point) 1/4" 
None 

The wooden handle is pear shaped and flat 
on two sides. The steel blade is reason- 
ably intact. 

Good. The tip of the blade has corroded 
somewhat. 



104 Tools and Implements 



Figure 97, 



Screwdriver 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 
Recovered : 
Size : 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Figure 98. 



Spokeshaves (MG-X) 

3 

Length (overall) 10" 

Length (of blade) 3 3/4" 

None 

The slot for the blade is cut at an angle 

to the wooden handles with a mounting screw 

hole on either side. 

Wood is in very good condition, but the 

blade has completely decomposed leaving 

only traces of iron oxide. 

Spokeshave 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 



Taps, pipe (MG-T) 
16 

Diameter 1/4" to 1" 

Threads (per inch) 20 to 7 
A manufacturer's seal is present, but it is 
too indistinct to be read. The outside dia- 
meter and the number of threads per inch are 
also stamped linearly on the shank (See Fig- 
ure 99). 



Tools and Implements 105 



Description: 



Condition: 
Figure 99. 



Each cast steel tap has three flutes cut 
across the threads and a square shank end 
so that it can be turned with a wrench. 
These taps will fit with the ratchet drills 
(See Figure 77). They appear to be part 
of a tap and die set (See Figure 76 for 
dies) . 
Good. Some are more corroded than others. 

Taps , pipe 
Full scale 



i>^ 





:■. •'©•■••'.;^ 



,^-}.vrv»» — 



5XV^^^ 




106 Tools and Implements 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size : 
Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Threaders, pipe (MG-N) 

4 

Length range 18" to 38" 

None 

The cast steel threaders have an adjusting 

screw for holding the die in place under 

the proper tension. Various sizes of dies 

could be used in each threader. 

Fair. The moving parts are frozen with 

corrosion. 



Figure 100 



Threaders , pipe 
Scale: 1/6 








Article : 
Recovered : 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Wrenches, crescent (MG-4N) 

8 

Length range 12" to 18" 

None 

The wrench is metal, and the adjusting screw 

is very similar to that on moaern day 

wrenches . 

Good. Deterioration has produced a grainy 

effect in the metal. The jaws and adjuster 

are inoperable due to corrosion. 



Tools and Implements 107 



Figure 101. 



Wrench, crescent 
Scale: 1/3 







Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Condition: 



Wrench, hammer (MG-U) 

1 

Length (overall) 8 1/8" 

Width (of head) 3 1/4" 

None 

Deterioration has produced a grainy effect 

in the metal. The wrench is inoperable 

due to corrosion. 



Figure 102. 



Wrench, hammer 
Scale: 1/3 




108 Tools and Implements 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size: 
Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Wrenches , monkey (MG-U) 
13 

Length range 8" to 18" 
Register Lock is on the fixed jaw. 
These adjustable metal wrenches have a 
thumb pressure release that would allow 
for the adjustment of the wrench and 
would hold the lower jaw in position. 
Good. Deterioration has produced a fur- 
rowed effect in the metal. The jaws and 
adjuster are inoperable. 



Figure 103. 



Wrench, 
Scale: 



monkey 
1/3 







L. 


"fff-" 


I 


i^ 




fc^ 








PLATE XI 


1 




^^ 


i i 


u 


'jiaui^P'""'' !■ 


■^ 




^Wiiinn^ 


1 

1 




6 INCHES 



, .„.^._ 



U Figs. 69 and 88 Ax and hatchet B. Figs. 72, 73, and 74 Chisel. 



i ! 




6 INCHES 



.-I - ' ,.,( I 



C. Figs. 76 and 99 Dies, pipe and taps, pipe 




D. Fig. 77 Drill, ratchet 



PLATE XII 




A. Fig. 78 Keg of files B. Fig. 83 Wood gouges 





C. Fig. 85 and 86 Handles, awl and rasp 




D. Fig. 93 Hoe 



PLATE XIII 




■! + 



^-f 




6 r.CHE; 



-4 



A. Fig. 94 Farrier's knife 



Fig. 96 Picks 





! i . 






1 ■ 
















( 


1 




^^ 




















n 








■■i 




■■■■i 




mii^ 






■-^w 


■■■" 






p™ 




















































1 














■■■I 




6 INCHES 



























C. Fig. 97 Screwdriver 




6 INCHES 



I 



D. Figs. 101, 102, and 103 Wrenches (Three types) 



Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 
Remarks : 



EDGED WEAPONS AND POCKETKNIVES 

Bayonets, Enfield saber (MG-B) 
55 complete 
49 fragments 

Length 28" 

Width (at guard) 4 1/2" 

Width (of blade at hilt) 1 1/4" 
Cooper Maker is stamped on the inside of 
the hilt on the leather portion. 
The hilts are made of gutta-percha and 
leather. There is a deep tapering fuller 
on both sides of the metal blade. 
Blades are in fair condition; handles and 
markings are in poorer condition. 
When the saber bayonet is affixed to the 
Enfield carbine, the overall length is 
about the same as the Enfield rifle af- 
fixed with the triangular bayonet. 



Figure 104. 



Bayonet, Enfield saber 
Scale: 1/4 




Figure 105. 



Bayonet hilt detail 
Full scale 





y 



110 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Article : 
Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 



Bayonets, Enfield triangular (MG-F) 
93 complete 

9 fragments 
Length 20 1/2" 

Width 2 1/4" tapering to 1/4" 
None 

To date no sheaths fitting these metal 
bayonets have been recovered. 
The mount is more deteriorated than the 
blade. 



Figure 106, 



Enfield triangular bayonet 
Scale: 1/4 




Article: 
Recovered: 



Size: 



Markings : 



Description 



Condition: 
Remarks : 



Knives, bowie (MG-D) 
107 complete 

84 blade fragments 

94 handle fragments 
This information combined with the 202 
sheath throats and 206 sheath tips indi- 
cates that at least 200 bowie knives 
were on board the MODERN GREECE. 
The knives vary considerably in size. 
For an indication of the dimensions see 
the descriptions accompanying the illus- 
trated samples. 

Several of the knives have maker's marks 
(See Figures 112 and 131), but the major- 
ity of the knives show no markings due 
to deterioration. 

The majority of the bowie knives have 
clipped points and solid stag hilts with 
various designs of butt plates, ferrules, 
and guards. Many knives were found 
concreted with sand and shell. Several 
very thin brass u-shaped ribs were found 
in cleaning, which had apparently fallen 
off the backs of some of the blades. 
Varies from very good to poor and frag- 
mentary. 

Samples of all the various characteristics 
occurring in the bowie knives are illus- 
trated. The knives are divided into two 
groups: (1) those with solid hilts and 
(2) those with two piece hilts. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives m 



I. Bowie knives with solid hilts. 
Knives with solid hilts were usually of stag 
horn and were held together with the blade 
tang being pressed into the hollowed horn 
which had been filled with either pine pitch 
or resin. A single steel pin was inserted 
through the hilt and tang to hold them to- 
gether. Butt plates were assembled by plac- 
ing a piece of wood into the hollowed out 
rear of the hilt. This was held in place 
by more pitch or resin. Finally, the butt 
plate containing at least two brass pins 
was pressed into the wood and secured flush 
against the hilt (Unless otherwise noted, 
all bowie knife illustrations are 1/2 scale) 



Figure 107. 



Reconstructed assembly of a spear point 
bowie knife with one piece handle. 
Scale: 1/4 

SPEAR POINT BLADE 3. FERRULE 5. PIN 



2. GUARD 



7. PITCH 9. BUTT PLATE 

4.P1TCH e^STAOHILT S.iUTTPLUQ 



'*^'^^^^^l ivp::v7g^^-:-;v■^^^^K^i:>^:^^;^ 



/ SCALE 
4 




8. 9. 



Examples of bowie knives with solid hilts. 



Figure 108. 



Solid stag hilt. The spear is badly deter- 
iorated and was probably 2" longer than its 
present 6 1/8". The extreme width of the 
blade is 1 l/8". 




Guard gCZDl 




112 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 109. 



This bowie knife has a swirl designed hard 
gutta-percha hilt. The rear of the hilt 
has very fine screw threads; whereby, the 
now missing butt plate was probably fitted 
The guard and ferrule are brass, and the 
clipped point blade is 8 9/3 6" long and 
1 3/16" wide. 




Figure 110. 




Guard 



Only one bowie knife with this type of dec- 
orative German silver hilt and brass guard 
was recovered. The clipped point blade is 
6 3/8" long and 1 1/8" wide. 




Guard 




Figure 111. 



Only one knife with this type of raised 
decorative German silver hilt and guard 
was recovered. The clipped point blade is 
6" long and 1 l/8" wide. 




Figure 112. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 113 



Solid stag hilt. Guard, ferrule, and butt 
plate are brass. Clipped point blade is 
7" long and 1 1/4" wide. Only part of the 
marking, which now reads Fabr / Pe / Angostura , 
is visible. 




Guard 




Figure 113. 



Solid stag hilt. The oval butt plate, guard, 
and ferrule are brass. The clipped point 
blade measures 6" long and 1" wide. 




Figure 114. 



Solid stag hilt. Guard, butt plate, and 
ferrule are brass. Spear point blade mea^ 
sures 8 1/4" long and 1" wide. 




Guard 




114 Edged Weapons and Poeketknives 



Figure 115, 



Five knives of this type with decorative 
scroll work on the German silver hilt and 
guard were recovered. The hilt was cast 
in one piece in a rosin or pitch cored two 
piece mold. The clipped point blade is 
now 5 9/16" long and 1" wide, but it may 
originally have been 1 1/2" longer. 




Figure 116. 



Guard 



Solid stag hilt. Butt plate, guard, and 
ferrule are brass. Spear point blade mea- 
sures 7 5/16" long and 1" wide. 




Guard 




Figure 117. 



Solid stag hilt. Butt plate, guard, and 
ferrule are brass. Spear point blade mea- 
sures 7 3/8" long and 15/16" wide. 




Guard 




Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 115 



Figure 118, 



Solid stag hilt. Butt plate, guard, and 
ferrule are brass. Spear point blade mea- 
sures 7 1/4" long and 15/16" wide. 




Figure 119. 



Solid stag hilt. Butt plate, guard, and 
ferrule are brass. Spear blade measures 
7 5/8" long and 1 l/8" wide. 




Remarks : 



Figure 120. 



Figure 121 



Figure 122 



Because of their large size, the next three 
knives are illustrated vertically on the 

following page. 

Bowie knife with a solid stag hilt. The 
guard, ferrule, and butt plate are brass. 
The spear point blade measures 10 1/4" 
long and 1 3/8" wide. 

Solid stag hilt. The guard, ferrule, and 
butt plate are brass. The clipped point 
blade is 10 7/16" long and 1 3/8" wide. 

Bowie knife with a half horse-half dragon 
motif partially encircled by a floral design 

all in relief on the German silver pommel. 
Traces of mother-of-pearl were originally 
observed forward of the motif on the hilt. 
However, these were lost during cleaning. 
The spear point blade which is double edged 
to the guard is 9 3/4" long and 1 9/16" wide, 



116 Edged W/»apons and Pocketknives 



Figure 120. 



Figure 121. 



Figure 122. 







• r, O 



P 




Guard 



Guard 



Guard 




Figure 123. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 117 

II. Bowie knives with two piece hilts. 
The two piece hilts were held together only 
by steel or brass pins. 

Reconstructed assembly of a clipped point 
bowie knife with a two piece hilt. 
Scale: 1/4 



I. CLIPPED POINT BLADE 3. GUARD 



5. PINS 



2. TANO 



Figure 124. 



4. HILT 



3. 




Jl^ SCALE 




I t 



Stag hilt. The guard and five tang pins 
are brass. The clipped point blade mea- 
sures 8 1/4" long and 1 3/8" wide. 




Guard 





Figure 125 



Stag hilt. Guard and escutcheon plate are 
brass. Five tang pins secure the 7 3/16" 
long and 1 1/16" wide spear point blade. 




Guard 



118 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 126. 



Stag hilt. Guard and escutcheon plate are 
brass. Four tang pins secure the 7 3/16" 
long and l/l6" wide clipped point blade. 




Guard 



Figure 127. 



Stag hilt. Guard and escutcheon plate are 
brass. Five tang pins secure the 8 7/8" 
long and l/l6" wide spear point blade. 




Figure 128. 



Stag hilt. Guard and escutcheon plate are 
brass. Five tang pins secure the 8 3/16" 
long and 1 1/4" wide clipped point blade. 




Guard 




Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 119 



Figure 129. 



Stag hilt. Guard and escutcheon plate are 
brass. Five tang pins secure the 8 1/8" 
long and 1 1/2" wide spear point blade. 




2h*i > * "» ^ I 



Guard 




^ri ia i j ..Wll-Uf 




Figure 130. 



Stag hilt. Butt plate, guard, and ferrule 
are brass. Five tang pins secure the 8 1/8" 
long and 1 5/16" wide clipped point blade. 




Figure 131. 




Guard 



The hilt is missing on this clipped point 
bowie knife made without a guard. Overall 
it is 13 3/8" long and 1 1/4" wide. The 
letters Llode Non are visible in the middle 
of the knife. These appear to be part of 
a maker ^s mark. 




120 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 132. 



The wooden hilt with no guard is secured to 
the tang with four pins , two of which have 
brass washers on them. The clipped point 
blade is 8 5/16" long and 1 7/8" wide. 




Figure 133. 



There are nine bowie knives from the MODERN 
GREECE with ebony hilts , decoratively shaped 
brass guards, and clipped point blades 9" 
long and 1 l/l6" wide. The detail shows a 
reconstruction of the blade outline. 





Reconstruction of blade outline 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 121 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Pikes (MG-L) 

4 

Length 14" 

Maximum width (of blade) 2'-' 

Maximum width (of handle) 11/2 

None 

A thin sheet of leather was wrappe 

the front end of the wooden handle 

then it was twisted into the taper 

socket of the spear shaped double- 

(See Figure 134 for details of the 

This handle and blade arrangement 

for interchangeable handles. Equi 

the short hand sized handle, it fo 

excellent throwing knife; with a 1 

it formed a pike or lance. 

Good. The metal blade has deterio 

somewhat. 



d around 
, and 
ed head 
edged blade 
assembly) . 
allowed 
pped with 
rmed an 
ong shaft 

rated 



Figure 134, 



Reconstruction of pike assembly 
Scale: 1/4 



PIKE ASSEMBLY 



SCALE 



Figure 135. 



Pikes 
Scale: l/2 



LEATHER mSERT 






REMOVABLE HILT 





122 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Article: 


Pock 


:etkn; 


Lves (MG- 


4V) 


Recovered : 


732 


total arranged as follows : 




39 


Type 


I 






25 


Type 


II 






35 


Type 


III 






63 


Type 


IV 






18 


Type 


V 






20 


Type 


VI 






8 


Type 


VII 






36 


Type 


VIII 






85 


Type 


IX 






252 


Type 


X 






146 


Type 


XI 






1 


Type 


XII (handle only) 




4 


too deteriorated to ascertain type. 


Size: 


Type 


; I 


Length 
Width 


4 " 
15/16" 




Type 


5 II 


Length 
Width 


4 3/8 " 
15/16" 




Type 


; III 


Length 
Width 


3 1/2 " 

7/8 " 




Type 


5 IV 


Length 
Width 


3 1/4 " 

7/8 " 




Type 


; V 


Length 
Width 


4 7/16" 
11/16" 




Type 


5 VI 


Length 
Width 


4 5/8 " 
11/16" 




Type 


; VII 


Length 
Width 


3 1/2 " 
1/2 " 




Type 


; VIII Length 


3 9/16" 








Width 


9/16" 




Type 


) IX 


Length 
Width 


4 3/4 " 
3/4 " 




Type 


; X 


Length 
Width 


4 3/4 " 

5/8 " 




Type 


' XI 


Length 
Width 


3 3/4 " 
1/2 " 




Type 


XII 


Length 
Width 


3 " 
3 9/16" 


Markings : 


Four 


different maker *s marks appear on the 




knives . 


Types II 


and III have J.K. Turner 




and 


Co. , 


Sheffield on the small blades. 




Types IX, 


X, and 


XI have the words Strike 




Fire 


on the blade 


Type VI have either 




Cast 


Stee 


;1 or Warrantd on the blade. Both 



kinds of markings have been observed on 
this one type of knife. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 123 



Description 



Condition: 



Twelve different types of pocketknives 
have been recovered from the MODERN GREECE. 
Originally these pocketknives were packed 
in groups of 6 or 12, two rows with three 
knives in each or three rows with four 
knives in each (See Figure 136), and then 
wrapped in paper. The knives were found 
concreted in bundles which show how they 
were packed. All the knives are similar 
in design with either one or two blades. 
The two bladed knives, Types I, II, HI, 
VII, and VIII have a large blade combined 
with a small thin sharp blade. Types IV, 
V, VI, IX, X, and XI have simply a single 
large blade. No blade has been recovered 
which fits with the Type XII handle. 
Types I, II, and III have antler hilts; 
all others are gutta-percha. For the most 
part the knives are unadorned. Types I, 
II, III, IV, and VIII are decorated with 
simple brass escutcheon plates. The brass 
ends on the Type VI knife are more ornate 
than on any of the others. 
Fair, The handles have deteriorated, but 
will hold together when left undisturbed. 
The brass parts of the knives are in ex- 
cellent condition. 



Figure 136. 



Bundle of pocketknives 
Full scale 




124 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 137. 



Pocketknives 
Full scale 




Figure 137. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 125 
(continued) 




Type IV 



Type V 



I '. 




Type VI 



I I 




' .■;<-i.«w«s-r'«. ■7'<^,^^yy; v-iBiVv.^*'-.'.'--;. '■•:^^7?'!.;_i^^; ■• ■■ •.-.•.• J ;■:,.'::;: 



126 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 137. 



(continued) 



Type VII 



li■Vk^v/^^■■:;>■/«-^''-/0.^.•=r^^*rrr^■^":::^1^v^:,hv:M:A„J^Lv:^.^:7:,V';f.: 




Figure 137. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 127 
(continued) 



Type X 







<.tJtClik^- 



S^Efi^"^^' 




feBia:^A;i^::^i^;va:;^S^ ^jL^ 



Type XI 











Type XII 




128 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Sheath, bowie knife (MG-E) 

1 intact. Numerous others were lost due to 
decomposition of the leather. 
Length 9" 
Maximum width 2 1/2" 
None 

The leather sheath has a seam sewn the en- 
tire length on one side. No tip was found 
on this sheath. Other sheath tips and 
throats have small traces of leather re- 
maining in them. 
Good 



Figure 138. 



Sheath, bowie knife 
Scale: 1/2 



1 ,., l-'A 


1 




|v-:^--i-:/;;;-^; 


\:i\-^--i 


m ■ 


.■;■ 




Front 



Back 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 129 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description: 

Condition: 



Sheath, Enfield saber bayonet (MG-C) 

74 

Length 24" 

Width 11/2" tapering to 7/8" 

None 

Leather sheaths have ferrous throats and 

tips. 

Good 



Figure 139. 



Sheath, Enfield saber bayonet 
Scale: 1/4 



m«: 






Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Throats, bowie knife sheath (MG-D) 
202 

Individual measurements vary slightly; there- 
fore, rather than give 202 different sets of 
specifications the types of throats found 
in the cargo of the MODERN GREECE are illus- 
trated below. The numbers accompanying the 
illustrations indicate how many of each type 
were recovered (See Figure 140 j . 
None 

The composition of the sheath tips and throats 
was analyzed, and they were found to be Ger- 
man silver. See Appendix II for full details 
of the findings. 
Good. Several of the throats still have 

leather in them. 



130 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 140. 



Throats , bowie knife sheath 



ti"-'- ■■ • • 
Its'** 



V - -, • I • 



. ,: ' -n 



•■■■.•■•■.9S 






169 




25 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Tips, bowie knife sheath (MG-D) 
206 

Measurements vary according to the type of 
tip. The 17 different types of sheath tips 
that were found in the cargo of the MODERN 
GREECE are illustrated below. Each is il- 
lustrated full scale, and the numbers along- 
side indicate how many of each type were 
recovered (See Figure 141), 
None 

The composition of the sheath tips and 
throats was analyzed, and they were found 
to be German silver. See Appendix II for 
full details of the findings. 
Good. Several of the tips still have leath- 
er in them. 



Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 131 



Figure 141, 



Tips , bowie knife sheath 
Full scale 










132 Edged Weapons and Pocketknives 



Figure 141. 



(continued) 







13 



13 




15 






20 




36 




23 



30 



PLATE XIV 




A. Figs. 104 and 139 Bayonet, Enfield saber and sheath 




B, Fig. 1Q6 Enfield triangular bayonets 




6 INCHES 



C. Figs. 119 and 133 Bowie knives 




6 INCHES 

D. Fig. 135 Pike 



PLATE XV 




« 



1 I ■ I 



6 INCHES 

T" 



■-+ 



A. Fig. 137 Pocketknives 




B. Figs. 132 and 138 Bowie knife with sheath 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Weight: 



Markings : 



Description: 



Condition: 



HOUSEWARES 

Flatirons (MG-7A) 
86 

85 Type I 
1 Type II 

(of illustrated flatirons) 
Type I -- Length 5 3/4 " 

Width 3 11/16" 
Type II — Length 6 3/8 " 

Width 4 1/4 " 
The irons range in length from 5 1/2" to 
6 5/8" and in width from 3 1/4" to 4 1/2". 
The irons marked with higher numbers are 
larger than the ones marked with smaller 
numbers. 

(of illustrated irons) 
Type I — 4 pounds 
Type II -- 5 1/2 pounds 

Weights range from approximately 2 l/2 pounds 
to 5 1/2 pounds. 

All flatirons have a manufacturer's marking. 
Two manufacturers are represented. 
Type I -- Tho . Green is stamped in the upper 
side of the iron in a circle surrounding 
large numbers ranging from 3 to 10. Several 
of the irons show a small s. instead of a 
period at the end of the Tho. (See Figure 
142 for a comparison of these markings). 
Type II -- W. Lees & Sons is stamped on one 
iron on the upper side in a circle surround- 
ing the number 10. 

The cast iron flatirons, which vary slightly 
in size and weight, originally came with 
attached handles that have now deteriorated 
(See Figure 145 for a reconstruction of the 
iron with its handle). 

Fair. The irons themselves are in good con- 
dition, but the handles have deteriorated. 
Only one handle remains intact. 



Figure 142. 



Manufacturer's markings from Type I flatirons. 
Full scale 





134 Housewares 
Figure 143. 



Flatiron (Type I) 
Full scale 




Figure 144. 



Flatiron (Type II) 
Full scale 




Housewares 135 



Figure 145. 



Flatiron (Type l) with handle intact 
Not to scale 




Article: 
Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 

Description: 

Condition: 



Forks, serving (MG-5A) 

4 

Length range 

Maximum width 

Space (between tines) 

None 

The forks are made of steel alloy. 

Fair. They are quite fragile and have 

broken along the shaft. 



15 1/2" to 18" 
5/8" 
1 3/4" 



136 Housewares 



Figure 146. 



Fork, serving 
Scale: 1/2 




m 



I'' I' *\ 



^■v-::ti 



Housewares 137 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Forks, table (MG-4R) 

111 preserved. Approximately 1,000 forks 
and knives were packed together, but it is 
now impossible to ascertain the exact num- 
ber of each due to the heavy concretion on 
the bundles (See Figure 148). 
Type I 

Length (of handle) 3 1/4 " 
Width (of handle) 5/8 " 



Type II 
Size A 



Type II 
Size B 



Length (overall) 7 1/2 " 
Width (of shaft) 5/16" 
Width (of tine end) 7/8 " 



(overall) 
(of shaft) 
(of tine end) 



7/8 
1/4 
7/8 



Length 

Width 

Width 
None 

There are two types of fork. Type I forks 
are ebony handled and now have their tines 
missing due to corrosion. Type II forks are 
all metal. There are two sizes of this type 
fork. Size A is a short thick shafted salad 
type fork, and Size B is a longer slender 
dinner type fork. 

Overall the Type I forks are in poor con- 
dition, for the tines have completely deter- 
iorated. The ebony handles themselves are 
in good condition. Type II forks are in 
good to fair condition with some deteriora- 
tion at the tine and handle ends. 



Figure 147. 



Figure 148. 



Table fork (type I) 
Full scale 




Concreted bundle of forks and table knives 
(Type I) 
Scale: 1/2 




138 Housewares 
Figure 149. 



Table forks (Type II), two sizes 
Full scale 





.' ■»' 



i 




S& 






B 



Housewares 139 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Markings : 



Knives, table (MG-4U) 

Approximately 1,000 intact and 234 han- 
dles without blades. Knives and forks 
were packed together and are now con- 
creted. It is now impossible to ascer- 
tain the exact number of each due to 
the heavy concretion. 

There are three types of knives. All 
the Type II knives are in a single con- 
creted bundle (See Figure 150). 
Type I 

overall) 



Type II 



Length 
Length 
Length 
Width 

Length 
Length 
Length 
Width 



Type III 



of handle) 
of blade) 
of blade) 

overall) 
of handle) 
of blade) 
of blade) 



10 
3 
6 
1 



1/4 

1/2 
3/4 



8 13/16" 

3 5/16" 

5 1/2 " 

3/4 " 



Length (overall) 9 1/4 " 
Length (of handle) 3 1/4 " 
Length (of blade) 6 " 
Width (of blade) 1 " 
Three manufacturers are represented. 
Type I — C. Walters & £o. , Globe Works , 
Sheffield with the word Super arched 
around the edge is stamped near the neck 
(See Figures 151 and 152). 
Type II - John K. Turner , Sheffield is 
stamped on the blade near the neck (See 
Figure 152). 

Type III- A crown set between V and R 
with Shear Steel underneath is stamped 
on the blade near the neck (See Figures 
151 and 152). 



140 Housewares 



Description: 



Condition: 



The knives were packed in bundles with the 
ebony handled forks (See Figure 149) in an 
arrangement that cannot be exactly deter- 
mined at this time. A bundle possibly con- 
sisted of 12 forks and 12 knives. The bun- 
dles were wrapped in some type of paper 
(possibly tar paper). Type I knives have 
ebony handles ; whereas , Types II and III 
have gutta-percha handles. There are no 
preserved Type II knives and only one bun- 
dle shows blades with the John K. Turner, 
Sheffield markings. 

Overall condition of the knives is fair. 
The wooden handles are in good condition, 
but the metal blades are badly deteriorated. 



Figure 150. 



Concreted bundle table knives (Type II) 
Scale: 1/2 




Figure 151. 



Table knives 
Scale: 1/2 




Type I 




Type III 



Housewares 141 



Figure 152, 



Makers ^ markings on table knives 
Scale: 2/1 



C. WALTCR5 kc*<ii> 
GL03E VORKX 



.■^.•X»t*^WW>M4«<— - 



Type I 



JOHN K. TURNER 
5MEFFIEI4D 



Type II 



(SmJiA^ 0'7SS£. 




Type III 



Article: 


Pans, frying (MG-4G) 






Recovered: 


3 






Size: 


Diameter (outer) 


10 


tT 




Diameter (of bottom) 


7 


1/2" 




Depth (of pan) 


2 


tf 




Length (of handle) 


15 


tr 




Width (of handle) 




3/4" 



Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



None 

The iron pans are flat bottomed with sides 

tapering outward. 

Poor 



142 Housewares 



Figure 153. 



Pan frying 
Scale: 1/4 




r?»W^Wli«J$?5^^ 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition : 



Plate, earthenware 

1 fragment 

Length (of fragment) 2 5/8" 

Width (of fragment) 1 1/4" 

None 

Part of the rim of a blue edged pearlware 

plate (circa 1780-1830), This type of 

earthenware was quite common during the 

Civil War. 

Good. Glaze is intact and not badly 

crazed. 



Housewares 143 



Figure 154. 



Plate, earthenware 
Full scale 




Article: 
Recovered 



Size 



Markings : 

Description 

Condition: 
Remarks : 



Scissors (MG-5B) 

Approximately 190-200 pairs. The exact num- 
ber is impossible to ascertain because of 
the concretion on the bundles of scissors, 
(of illustrated scissors) 
A — Length (of body) 

(of blades) 

(of body) 

(of blade) 



7" 

1" and 

6 1/2" 

5/8" 



3/4' 



Width 
B — Length 

Width 
None 

There are four different types of scissors 
varying in design and size (See Figure 156). 
Poor. Due to the fragility of the scissors 
themselves, they are badly deteriorated. 
They may have been packed with or next to 
wood gouges, for one bundle of scissors had 
wood gouges concreted to it. 



144 Housewares 



Figure 155. 



Scissors 
Full scale 




•r.-**^-'* • ■ ^•'■ — '^J---«.— - .'~-flr.->r!C».~ 



^'^•^ili.. .. 



^^■■ 











•^*^* 



B 




Housewares 145 



Figure 156. 



Types of scissors 
Scale: 1/2 





II 




III 




IV 



146 Housewares 



Article : 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 

Condition: 



Spoons, serving (MG-J) 

11 

Length range 11 3/4" to 18" 

Average width (of bowl) 2 1/4" 

Average width (of handle) 1 " 

None 

The serving spoons are steel with silver 

plating. 

Varies from good to poor. Spoons are very 

corroded and fragile. 



Figure 157. 



Spoon, serving 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 
Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



(of shaft at nee 
(of bowl) 



(of shaft) 
(of bowl) 



8 



Tablespoons (MG-2Y) 

72 

Style A 

Length overall 

Width (of shaft at neck) 

Width 

Style B 

Length overall 

Width 

Width 

None 

There are two styles of tablespoon. 

A is unadorned at the handle; whereas. 

Style B has a more decorative handle. The 

exact metallic composition of these spoons 

is uncertain; however, they are silver 

plated. The plating remains in spotted 

areas on many of the spoons. 

Good. Corrosion is worst on the edges of 

the bowls and the tips of the handles. 



5/16" 
7/16" 

1/16" 
5/16" 

. 7/8 " 

Style 



Housewares 147 



Figure 158. 



Tablespoons 
Full scale 



jl^ry', 



^ 




!>•-. •■■•4 




K-^*"- 







t:, i 




Style A 



Style B 



148 Housewares 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition 



Teaspoons (MG-2H) 

65 

All were unifrom in size before corrosion. 

Approximate length 5 3/4" 

Approximate width (of bowl) 1 1/4" 

Approximate width (of handle) 5/8" 

None 

Made of silver plated steel. The handles 

are shaped like Style B of the tablespoon 

(See Figure 158). 

Good. Corrosion is severest at the handle 

and bowl ends. 



Figure 159. 



Teaspoon 
Full scale 



PLATE XVI 




6 li ( MLS 



A. Fig. 145 Type I flatiron (With handle) 




B. Figs. 146 and 157 Fork and spoon, serving 



PLATE XVII 




A. Figs. 149, 151, and 159 Type II table 
forks, table knife, and teaspoons 




6 ^MCHFS 



B. Fig. 155 Scissors 



C. Fig. 158 Tablespoons 



HARDWARE 



Article: 
Recovered: 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 160. 



10 3/8" 

7/8" 

2 3/8" 

2 1/4" 



Bolt with nut (MG-3W) 

1 

Threads (per inch) 

Length (of bolt) 

Diameter (of bolt) 

Diameter (of head) 

Diameter (of nut) 

None 

Nut and bolt combination is composed of 

cast steel. The bolt is threaded the 

length of the shaft, although this is 

only visible after careful inspection. 

Good 



Bolt with nut 
Scale: 1/2 




Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Hinges (MG-3E) 

4, total arranged as follows: 

3 pin hinges 

1 HL hinge 

A — Length 

Width 
B -- Length 

Width 
C — Length 

Width 
D — Length 

Width 
None 

All the hinges are ferrous. Type A is a 
strap hinge. It is not possible to ascer- 
tain the hole pattern on this hinge due 
to deterioration. Type B is a strap and 
pintle type hinge with a four hole pat- 
tern. Type C is a strap hinge with a four 
hole pattern still visible. Type D is an 
HL hinge with ten countersunk screw holes 
that are clearly visible. 
Good 



7 3/4" 

1 7/8" 
10 1/2" 

1 1/2" 
14 

1 

7 

5 



7/8" 
3/4" 
1/2" 



150 Hardware 



Figure 161 



Hinges 
Scale: 1/2 




B. Strap and pintle 




C. Strap hinge 



rniMirnr ^niiiiff mr ri"""™"-™ 




D. HL 



Hardware 151 



Article : 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Lock, chest (MG-3C) 
1 

Length 2 3/4" 
Width 1 3/4 V 
None 

Lock is entirely brass. It is now broken 
into two pieces. One piece, the cover with 
keyhole, is bent. The other is the inter- 
nal mechanism. A post sticks up from the 
center of the mechanism and fits through the 
cover. 

Although the lock is in two pieces , it is 
in good condition. 



Figure 162. 



Lock, chest 
Full scale 






Top view of cover with 
keyhole. 



Internal mechanism 




J^X. 



A 



\_ 



k.^ 




Side view of bent cover 



Side view o^ internal 
mechanism showing post 



152 Hardware 



Article : 
Recovered : 



Size 



Nails, horseshoe (MG-5H) 

2 kegs, approximately 200 pounds (See Figure 

164), from which the three nails illustrated 

below are a sample. 

(of illustrated nails) 

A -- Length 





Width 


(of head) 


3/8 '^ 




Width 


(of shaft) 


3/16" 




B -- Length 




2 1/4 " 




Width 


(of head) 


1/4 " 




Width 


(of shaft) 


3/16" 




C -- Length 




2 5/16" 




Width 


(of head) 


5/16" 




Width 


(of shaft) 


3/16" 


Markings : 


None 






Description: 


The ferrous 


horseshoe nails vary slightly 




in size. 






Condition: 


Fair. The metal is deteriorated, and the 




nails are mostly concreted together. 



Figure 163. 



Nails, horseshoe 
Full scale 





Figure 164. 



Keg of horseshoe nails 
Scale: l/lO 




Hardware 153 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Padlock (MG-3C) 
1 

Width 2 

Length (top to bottom) 2 
Thickness 

Thickness (of shackle) 
None 

Lock is made of cast steel, 
for the now missing escutcheon plate is 
brass. The sides of the lock are perfo- 
rated. Eleven rivets are visible on the 
front. The interior mechanism is intact 
but inoperable. 
Good. The mechanism does not operate. 



3/4" 
3/4 1' 
5/8" 
3/8" 

The mounting 



Figure 165 



Padlock 
Full scale 




PLATE XVIII 







A. Fig. 161 Hinges 




6 INCHES 



i — — t 



B. Fig. 168 Ceramic fragments 
(ironstone) 






/'• 



.f ,0 



I"" -T- 



C. Fig. 168 Ceramic fragments 
(stoneware) 



CONTAINERS 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Bottle, glass whiskey (MG-4X) 

1 

Height 

Width (at widest point) 

Width 

Width 

Width 

Width __ ^ „. 

Depth (front to back at base) 
Width 



Condition: 



(at widest poin 

(at base) 

(of label area) 

(of neck) 

(of opening) 

(front to back 

(of seam) 
A raised and molded-in 
the bottom (See Figure 
The poured mold bottle 
lip is a light pink-pu 
glass itself has many 
throughout with one la 
tom. The glass in the 
and thicker on one sid 
There is a round inden 
ter front of the bottl 
was probably affixed. 
Good 



3/4 
5/8 
1/8 
1/4 

1/8' 
1/2' 
1/2' 
is on 



numeral 20 

166). 

with an applied 
rplish color. The 
small bubbles 
rge one at the bot- 

bottom is irregular 
e than the other, 
tation in the cen- 
e where a label 



Figure 166 



Detail showing molded-in numeral 2^ on 
base of bottle. 
Full scale 




156 Containers 
Figure 167. 



Bottle, glass whiskey 
Full scale 




Front 



Containers 157 



Article: 
Recovered 



Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Ceramic, fragments (MG-5J) 
21 fragments 
19 ironstone fragments 
2 stoneware fragments 
(of illustrated fragments) 
A — Length 3 

Width 1 

B -- Outside diameter (of lip) 2 
Inside diameter (of lip) 1 
Diameter (of jar) 3 

None 

The 19 fragments of grey ironstone (granite 
china), of which the largest is illustrated, 
may originally have been part of a plate. 
The pieces now cannot be fitted together. 
The stoneware is a yellowish brown. When 
the fragments were pieced together, they 
formed part of the lip and neck of a jar. 
Good 



3/8 " 
1/4 " 
1/8 " 
5/16" 
1/2 " 



Figure 168. 



Ceramic, fragments 
Full scale 





158 Containers 



Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 
Figure 169. 



Glass fragments (MG-6Q) 

2 fragments 

A -- Height 2 3/4" 

Diameter (of base) 2 3/4'-' 
B -- Height 2 1/8^ 

Diameter 2 7/l6" 

None 

The fragments are from a dark green glass 
whiskey bottle. Fragment A is the base, 
and B is from the body of the bottle. They 
were probably mold blown and are of a type 
common during the Civil War period. 
Good 

Glass fragments 
Full scale 




Article: 
Recovered : 
Size: 

Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Keg, IQ gallon (MG-5M) 
1 

Height 19 3/4" 
Diameter 14 
None 

This wooden keg originally held either pow- 
der or foodstuffs^ which have now deterio- 
rated. One-third of one side is gone. The 
wooden hoops are not original but were added 
to hold the keg together. 
Fair to good 



Containers 159 



Figure 170. 



Keg, iO gallon 
Scale: 1/4 




MISCELLANEOUS 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Shoes (MG-3U) 

2 (l pair) and several fragments 
Length 10 3/l6" 

Width 3 " 

Height (at heel) 5 " 
None 

These leather men's shoes were made with- 
out a last so that they could be worn on 
either foot. They are double soled with 
one inch heels and brass tacks. The 
stitching is still visible. 
Good. The leather has dried and is crack- 
ed in places. 



Figure 171. 



Shoes 
Scale: 



1/2 




Sole 



THE PRESERV\TlON 




A SUMMARY OF THE METHODS USED IN PRESERVING THE ARTIFACTS 
RECOVERED FROM THE MODERN GREECE 



The preservation of marine artifacts from a wreck 
such as the MODERN GREECE is an integral part of the re- 
covery process. The preservation must begin the moment 
the artifact is located, for unless proper precautions are 
taken the artifact will be irrevocably damaged. Organic, 
ferrous, and nonferrous substances react differently to 
long periods of submersion in salt water. Preservation 
techniques take these differences into account. 

Organic materials which have become waterlogged 
must be protected from rapid drying. When uncontrolled 
drying occurs, the outer surfaces dry faster than the in- 
terior. The resultant warping, shrinking, and cracking 
distorts the appearance and shortens the life of the 
artifact. To prevent rapid drying, organic artifacts must 
be kept wet from the moment they are recovered until they 
can undergo treatment. 

Ferrous artifacts in salt water continue their 
natural oxidation process; however, as this happens the 
artifact picks up bits and pieces of sand, coral, and 
shell. These become cemented to the surface of the 
artifact and form a protective layer that reduces the 
oxidation rate. The ferrous artifact ultimately reaches 
an equilibruim with the marine environment, and the 
corrosion process slows. As soon as the artifact is 
removed from this environment, the delicate equilibrium 
is upset, and the oxidation rapidly accelerates causing 
the artifact to quickly deteriorate. This deterioration 
is especially rapid if the protective cementation is 
broken or if the artifact is exposed to air. To prevent 
deterioration the ferrous artifact must be carefully re- 
turned to a wet environment as soon as it is recovered. 

Nonferrous artifacts, unlike organic and ferrous 
items, do not necessarily require the maintenance of a 
wet environment to prevent their deterioration; however, 
it is recommended since calcareous materials may become 
more hardened upon drying. Nonferrous artifacts must 
be handled with care to prevent breakage, since nonfer- 
fous metals are soft and fragile by nature. Ultimately 
each type is cleaned in accordance with its special needs. 



164 Summary of Preservation 

In 1962 when the State of North Carolina and the 
United States Navy first began recovering the artifacts 
from the MODERN GREECE, strict precautions were not taken; 
and many of the artifacts, especially organic ones, were 
damaged. They were left too long on the decks of the re- 
covery vessels and dried out. As soon as this mistake 
was recognized, the materials from the MODERN GREECE were 
cared for according to the principles outlined above to 
prevent further damage. As the 11,500 artifacts were 
recovered, they were placed in wet storage at the Fort 
Fisher Air Force Station. This make-do arrangement last- 
ed until the State of North Carolina was able to build 
its own facility, the Fort Fisher Preservation Laboratory, 
located on the nearby Fort Fisher State Historic Site. 
The preservation of the artifacts from the MODERN GREECE 
has continued at this facility since 1962. 

Over the years approximately fifty-five different 
methods of preservation have been used. The large number 
of duplicate artifacts in the MODERN GREECE collection 
allows for the testing of many new preservation techniques. 

Before the MODERN GREECE artifacts undergo preser- 
vation, they must be cleaned and analyzed to determine 
their composition and condition so that the correct preser- 
vative treatment may be employed. First, the conservator 
collects photographs of the material before it is cleaned. 
From photographs it is often possible to reconstruct the 
packing arrangement of crated items or the placement of 
loose articles that have become totally obscured by the en- 
crustation. In some cases where delicate artifacts are 
suspected of lying within a heavy concretion. X-rays are 
taken to determine their position and condition within the 
concretion. During cleaning a photographic record is kept 
of any markings or other unusual features that appear as 
encrustations and rust are removed. 

During cleaning the artifacts are handled as care- 
fully as possible so as not to damage any fine details. 
Brushes, wooden picks, and fine tools are used to remove 
the surface debris. After this the artifact is reexamined. 
At this time its composition and condition are analyzed to 
determine the most suitable preservative treatment. 

Although most materials pass through similar phases 
of treatment, the particular preservation process used is 
determined primarily by the artifact 's material composi- 
tion, size, and condition. The balance of this chapter 
outlines the special processes found most suitable for 
use on organic, nonf errous , and ferrous artifacts. 



Summary of Preservation 165 
ORGANIC 

Because of the great variety of materials and the 
varying stages of decomposition in which marine organic 
artifacts are recovered, there is no set method whereby 
these materials are treated. Although the procedures 
may vary slightly in accordance with special needs, the 
treatment is generally done in three stages: (l) clean- 
ing, (2) impregnation or freeze drying, and (3) pre- 
paration for exhibition or storage. The majority of 
the organic artifacts from the MODERN GREECE are treat- 
ed by impregnation; however, in some cases small fragile 
items are freeze dried. Both methods are described 
below. 

Treatment by impregnation 

(l) Cleaning - Special care is taken with organic 
artifacts to insure that all living organisms attacking 
the artifact are removed. A fresh water wash and soak 
usually kills the the marine borers and worms residing 
in the artifact. The water should be changed regularly 
to wash away putrefied material from the decaying or- 
ganisms. The cleaning is usually completed when there 
is no longer a foul odor. Small amounts of fungicide 
and algicide are used to control plant growth. Bulky 
or sturdy items will tolerate pressure washing, picking, 
chipping, brushing, or chemical baths, A 5% solution 
of phosphoric acid is used for a chemical cleaning bath, 
since this does not readily attack organic material. It 
will, however, remove concreted material and any iron 
oxide picked up from adjacent materials. After the acid 
bath the artifact is thoroughly washed to remove any 
residual traces of acid. When a litmus paper test is 
negative, the artifact is ready for impregnation. When 
ferrous or nonferrous materials are combined with the 
organic, the artifact must be treated as if it was 
completely organic. These artifacts will not tolerate 
electrolytic reduction, since the evolution on the sur- 
face of the ferrous material causes pressure which will 
split the organic parts. In rare cases very delicate 
items suffering from extensive decay are left uncleaned 
to prevent further damage. These are simply stored and 
exhibited in water. 



166 Summary of Preservation 



(2) Impregnation - To prevent warping, shrinking, 
and cracking during the drying process, the moisture in 
the waterlogged marine artifact must be replaced with a 
material which does not readily evaporate or leach out. 
Polyethylene-glycol, beeswax, paraffin wax, linseed oil, 
and turpentine may be used as impregnants ; however, in 
most cases polyethylene-glycol is preferable. Polyeth- 
ylene-glycol, also known as carbowax, is available in 
200, 300, 400, 600, 1000, 1540, 4000 and 6000 weights, 
which roughly represent their average molecular weight. 
At 77°F the 200 through 600 weights are clear liquids, -. 
and the 1000 to 6000 weights are white, waxy solids. 
Polyethylene-glycol dissolves in water without hydrolyz- 
ing or deteriorating. When an artifact is soaked in 
polyethylene-glycol, the water from the artifact goes 
into the solution. As evaporation of the water from the 
polyethylene-glycol occurs, the waxy substance replaces 
the water leaving the wood fibers pliable and eliminating 
shrinkage. This process takes several weeks with the 
length of time varying according to the density and size 
of the artifact. 

(3) Preparation for Exhibition - After the arti- 
fact is removed from the impregnant, it is rinsed in cold 
water or wiped dry to prevent excess impregnant from 
solidifying on the surface. The articles are then al- 
lowed to dry at normal room temperature, until the im- 
pregnant is set or solidified within the item. This 
process sometimes takes several weeks. Fungicides and 
insecticides are applied to items which might be attacked 
by fungus or insects. Coatings are only applied to or- 
ganic artifacts if a particular finish is desired. 



Treatment by freeze-dryinjs: 

(1) Cleaning - Artifacts for f reeze-drying are 
cleaned in exactly the same manner as those which are im- 
pregnated. 

(2) Freeze-drying - Once the artifact is cleaned 
and washed sufficiently to remove any residual traces of 
acid, it is ready for freeze-drying. Before the arti- 
fact enters the freeze-drying chamber, it is mounted in 
the desired position by wire supports. It is then pre- 
frozen either in the chamber itself or in another type 
of freezer. If all the water in the artifact is not in 



Summary of Preservation 167 

a solid state before the actual drying process begins, 
the artifact will grossly distort. The drying process 
takes place in a specially designed two chambered ap- 
paratus. The artifact is placed in a refrigeration cham- 
ber which is connected to an insulated condenser chamber. 
A vacuum pump is hooked up to the condenser chamber which 
is set at a colder temperature than the refrigeration 
chamber containing the artifact. The temperatures used 
vary from 21°F to -40°F. As a vacuum of approximately 
100 microns is applied, the moisture is extracted from 
the artifact by sublimation. This causes the frozen 
water molecules to vaporize and collect on the colder 
surface of the condenser chamber. When the artifact 
temperature is equal to that of the condensing chamber, 
the artifact is dry. 

(3) Preparation for exhibition - Once the freeze- 
dryed artifact is removed from the drying chamber it is 
virtually ready for exhibition. Fungicides and insec- 
ticides are applied to items which might be attacked by 
fungus or insects. Coatings are only applied if a parti- 
cular finish is required. 



NONFERROUS 

Usually the nonferrous items recovered from the 
MODERN GREECE have required little or no preservative 
treatment beyond cleaning and neutralization. All arti- 
facts, however, are handled carefully since improper 
care and mistreatment of fine items can cause more 
damage than years of submersion in salt water. The 
various types of nonferrous materials require slightly 
different care as outlined below. 



Fine copper and copper alloys 

(1) Cleaning - The artifacts are manually cleaned 
using wooden picks and soft vegetable brushes. If stub- 
born encrustations persist, the artifacts are soaked in 
a 5% phosphoric acid solution for a short interval, or 
a mild electrolytic reduction treatment is applied to 
loosen the calcareous materials. (The electrolytic reduc- 
tion process is described fully under FERROUS, for it is 
used more extensively in treating that type of material.) 



168 Summary of Preservation 



(2) Neutralization - After the removal of en- 
crusted materials the artifacts are bathed in 20-minute 
alternating hot and cold distilled water baths until 
they test negative for salts. This test is done by add- 
ing several drops of silver nitrate and several drops 

of diluted nitric acid to a sample of wash water. If 
salts are present, the wash water will become milky 
white. 

(3) Polishing - The artifacts are then polished 
with a soft cloth, extra fine steel wool, or metal 
polish. All polish residue is thoroughly removed with 
solvent or soap and water. 

(4) Preparation for coating - The artifacts must 
be completely dry before a protective coating is applied. 
To thoroughly dry the artifact, it is placed in an oven 
set at approximately 200°F for eight to twelve hours or 
in a four- hour alcohol followed by a four- hour ether 
bath. 

(5) Coating - The condition of the artifact, the 
exhibition site, the content of the exhibition, and the 
original appearance are considered in deciding what sur- 
face finish suits the artifact. If a dull finish is 
desired, the item is coated with clear flat vinyl or a 
semi-gloss enamel. Gloss vinyl, plastic resin, gloss 
varnish or a similar material are applied for a glossy 
finish. Coatings are always applied in a dust free area. 



Bulky or rough cast copper and copper alloys 

(1) Cleaning - The copper artifacts are soaked 

in a 5% phosphoric acid solution and brushed periodically 
with a strong bristle brush until the calcareous mater- 
ials come off. On rare occasions large items are sand- 
blasted with fine grit to remove the encrustations. 

(2) Neutralization - After being thoroughly clean- 
ed, the artifact, unless it is exceedingly large, is 
bathed in alternate hot and cold distilled water baths 
until it tests negative for salts. 

(3) Drying - The artifacts are then dried in a 
212°F. oven for eight or more hours depending on their 
size and density. 

(4) Coating - The items are finally either coat- 
ed with a clear flat coating or left to weather naturally, 



Summary of Preservation 169 
Lead, tin and pewter 

(1) Cleaning - These artifacts are carefully 
cleaned by chipping, picking, and brushing under run- 
ning water. To remove stubborn calcareous material, 
the artifacts are soaked in a 5% phosphoric acid solu- 
tion and brushed frequently with a soft vegetable 
brush to remove the loosened material. 

(2) Neutralization - Once cleaned the artifacts 
are rinsed in heated distilled water until they test 
negative for acid. All traces of the phosphoric acid 
used in cleaning are removed. 

(3) Drying - Since coatings are not normally 
required, these items are simply allowed to dry at 
room temperature before they are ready for exhibition. 

FERROUS 

The numerous iron and steel artifacts are the 
most difficult ones from the MODERN GREECE to preserve. 
Many are badly deteriorated and fragile due to their 
long exposure to salt water. Two basic methods used 
in treating the ferrous artifacts are described in de- 
tail below: (l) electrochemical reduction and (2) elec- 
trolytic reduction. Fragile or very large items are best 
treated with electrolytic reduction. This method does 
not jostle a fragile item during the process. Also, 
large items do not require inordinately large amounts of 
chemical for electrolytic treatment. Several other 
methods are sometimes used for preserving ferrous arti- 
facts. These include plastic embedding, sandblasting, 
and sonic cleaning. Very delicate ferrous, nonferrous, 
and organic items which will not withstand excessive 
handling are embedded in clear plastic. Tiny, fine 
items of all types of material may be cleaned with sonic 
waves. Sandblasting is only used on very large metal 
artifacts in good condition without markings or fine de- 
tails that might be injured by this treatment. 



Electrochemical reduction 

(l) Reduction - This process uses an electro- 
chemical reaction to cause oxidation and reduction to 
remove concreted material and iron oxide. For the re- 
duction process the artifact is buried under a heap of 



170 Summary of Preservation 

granulated zinc in an iron or enamel basin. Then it is 
covered with a 10 to 20% solution of sodium hydroxide 
dissolved in water. This mixture is then boiled for an 
hour or more. The level of the fluid is maintained by 
the addition of distilled water. This process produces 
noxious fumes and must be carried out in a well venti- 
lated area. The zinc can be regranulated and used again, 
but the sodium hydroxide has to be replaced. This makes 
the process relatively expensive in terms of time and 
chemicals. An additional disadvantage is that the arti- 
fact is buried and the process is difficult to visually 
monitor. 

(2) Neutralization - After the chemical action 
has ceased, the artifact is brushed clean under running 
water. It is then bathed in alternating hot and cold 
distilled water baths, until it tests negative for salts 
and acids. 

(3) Drying - After the artifact is thoroughly 
neutralized, it is dried in an oven at vapor point 
(approximately 200°F. ) for a period of eight to twelve 
hours. To prevent surface rusting during drying, the arti' 
fact is coated with manganesed phospholene #7 before it 

is placed in the oven. Particularly fragile items may 
be dried with alcohol and ether baths. 

(4) Coating - Depending on the item and its con- 
dition, the dried artifact is coated with a plastic 
epoxy, vinyl, or spray fixative. In general a final 
coating with flat vinyl is used to cut down surface 
gloss and to give the artifact a pleasing appearance. 



Electrolytic reduction 

(l) Reduction - This process involves setting 
up an electrolytic cell; wherein, the artifact to be 
cleaned is the cathode. The cell itself consists of a 
vat with two electrodes, the anode, and the cathode, 
suspended in an electrically conductive solution called 
the electrolyte. A 5% sodium hydroxide solution or 
about 45 grams per gallon of distilled water is usually 
used for the electrolyte. Electrical current is applied 
from an external direct current source such as a recti- 
fier to cause oxidation and reduction which results in 
the removal of the encrustation and iron oxide. The 
amount of current used varies according to the composi- 
tion and condition of the artifact; however, approxi- 
mately 10 amperes per square foot of surface area is 



Summary of Preservation 171 

generally used. The anode is the positive terminal of 
the electrolytic cell, to which negatively charged ions, 
electrons, and particles travel when the electric charge 
is applied. Oxidation occurs at the anode and oxygen is 
evolved. At the cathode, reduction occurs and hydrogen 
evolves. During the process the salts are transferred 
from the artifact to the anode by electrolytic attrac- 
tion. This system is relatively inexpensive to set up 
and offers a variety of uses since the amount of the 
current can be changed to suit the artifact being cleaned. 

(2) Neutralization - After the artifact is re- 
moved from the electrolyte, it is brushed under water 
and then bathed in alternating baths of hot and cold 
distilled water until it tests negative for salts. 

(3) Drying - When the artifact is neutralized, 
it is dried in an oven at vapor point (approximately 
200°F. ) for eight to twelve hours. To prevent surface 
rusting during drying, the artifact is coated with manga- 
nesed phospholene #7 before it is placed in the oven, 

(4) Coatings - Depending on the item and its 
condition, the dried artifact is coated with plastic, 
epoxy, vinyl, or spray fixative. In general a final 
coating with flat vinyl is used to cut down the surface 
gloss and to give the artifact a pleasing appearance. 



Figure 172, 



Equipment for electrolytic reduction, 



METAL SUSPENDING RODS 
WITH RUBBER INSULATORS 




RECTIFIER 



TANK 



172 Summary of Preservation 
Plastic embeddinjg; 

(1) Cleaning - The small artifact to be embedded 
in plastic is cleaned by whatever method best suits its 
composition and condition. 

(2) Neutralization - The metal item, unless it 
is too fragile, is bathed in alternating hot and cold 
distilled water baths, until it tests negative for salts 
and acids. Ordinarily organic materials do not require 
neutralization before embedding. 

(3) Drying - After the artifact is thoroughly 
neutralized, it is simply blotted dry or dried in alco- 
hol or ether baths . 

(4) Embedding - A smooth plastic mold of an ap- 
propriate size for the artifact is filled one-third full 
of clear plastic resin. As this layer starts to harden, 
the artifact is positioned in the semi-hard plastic. 

If the artifact starts to float, a small amount of resin 
is poured over it. When the plastic starts to set with 
the artifact firmly in place, the mold is completely 
filled. When the plastic resin has fully hardened, the 
artifact is removed from the mold. Once any rough sur- 
faces are polished smooth, the artifact is ready for 
exhibition. 



Sandblasting 

(1) Blasting - Bulky items are sandblasted to 
bare metal using a standard sandblasting apparatus and 
fine grit. The jet of sand and air under pressure simply 
erodes away the outer deteriorated layer leaving the 
metal bare. This method quickly removes concreted mater- 
ials from large metal items. 

(2) Neutralization - Before it is dried the arti- 
fact is steam cleaned to remove any residue. To prevent 
surface rusting during drying the artifact is coated 
with manganesed phospholene #7. 

(3) Drying - After the item is thoroughly neutral- 
ized, it is dried in an oven at vapor point (approximately 
200°F. ) for eight to twelve hours. Articles too large to 
be placed in an oven are left to air dry. 

(4) Coating - Depending on the item and its con- 
dition, the dried artifact is coated with plastic epoxy 
or vinyl. Exceedingly bulky items to be displayed 



Summary of Preservation 173 

outside are primed with inorganic zinc silicate coat- 
ing to prevent deterioration from exposure to the 
elements . 



(1) Cleaning - This is a specialized process 
requiring ultra-sonic equipment. It is rarely used and 
only on very small and exceptionally fragile ferrous 
and nonferrous materials. The scale and debris on the 
artifact is removed by the vibration caused by the 
high frequency sound waves bouncing off the object. 

(2) Neutralization ~ Once the artifact is thor- 
oughly cleaned, it is bathed in alternating hot and cold 
distilled water baths until it tests negative for salts 
and acids. This step is sometimes left out on very deli- 
cate items which cannot tolerate such treatment. 

(3) Drying - After it tests negative for salts 
and acids, the artifact may be dried either in the oven 
or with alcohol or ether baths. 

(4) Coating - As with other ferrous artifacts, 
those cleaned by ultra sound may be coated, if they re- 
quire it. 





B, Impregnation 



A. Manual cleaning 




C. Electrolysis 



PLATE XX 





A. Neutralization 



B. Drying 




C, Coating 




D. Storage 



SUPPLEMENTARY 
MATERIAL 




APPENDIX I 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF .577 CALIBER 
ENFIELD BULLET MEASUREMENTS 



A statistical analysis was done on 100 Enfield bullets 
by Joe Stephen Davis, a student at Cape Fear Technical Insti- 
tute, to compute standard deviations in their specific mea- 
surements. Davis was trying to show how consistent individual 
bullet molds were with each other. The following are excerpts 
from this report: 



Lenj^th (mm) 




^Bullets 


Diameter (mm) 


#Bullets 


2.56 to 2.60 




2 


1.41 to 




7 


2.61 to 2.65 




1 


1.42 to 




16 


2.66 to 2.70 




21 


1.43 to 




34 


2.71 to 2.75 




53 


1.44 to 




28 


2.76 to 2.80 




12 


1.45 to 




9 


2.81 to 2.85 




7 


1.46 to 




4 


2.86 to 2.90 




4 


1.47 




1 


Average - 2.71195 




Average 


- 1.42474 




Cavitv Depth 


(mm)#Bullets 


Weiis:ht ( 


'grams ) 


#Bullets 


.99 to 




1 


31.5000 


to 31.9999 


1 


1.00 to 




14 


32.0000 


to 32.4999 


1 


1.01 to 




19 


32.5000 


to 32.9999 





1.02 to 




10 


33.0000 


to 33.4999 


3 


1.03 to 




18 


33.5000 


to 33.9999 


20 


1,04 to 




21 


34.0000 


to 34.4999 


48 


1.05 to 




14 


34.5000 


to 34.9999 


24 


1.06 




3 


35.0000 


to 35.4999 











35.5000 


to 35.9999 


2 


Average - 1.02115 




Average 


- 34.1664 




Cavitv 


Opening Diameter 


(mm) 


#Bullets 








.96 to 




1 








.99 to 




2 






1, 


.02 to 




10 






1, 


.05 to 




32 






1. 


.08 to 




37 






1. 


.11 to 




16 






1. 


.14 




2 






Average - 1.0822 







APPENDIX II 
ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF SHEATH TIPS AND THROATS 



The composition of the sheath tips and throats 
has been determined by SEM-EDX, X-ray fluorescence, and 
electron microprobe analysis. 

The accompanying photographs show the energy dis- 
persive analysis of the tip and the throat (labeled 
"guard" on the photograph) in the scanning electron mic- 
roscope (See Plate XXl). The X-ray fluorescence analy- 
sis of the throat and tip yield more quantitative re- 
sults as follows: 



Throat 


Ni 
25.0 


Cu 
55-60 


Zn 
20.0 


Fe 

Clfo 


Tip 


20.0 


55-60 


25.0 


<.!% 



These analyses were performed without destroying 
the pieces. The geometries lead to some uncertainty in 
the analysis. 



PLATE XXI 




Til* 

A. 



Energy dispersive analysis of 
sheath tip 




Guard 

B. Energy dispersive analysis of the 

throat (labeled guard on photograph) 



APPENDIX III 

ARTIFACTS SUPPOSEDLY RECOVERED FROM THE MODERN GREECE 
BUT OF QUESTIONABLE ORIGINS 



The following artifacts are not included in the 
inventory itself, because they either were not recovered 
directly from the site by the State of North Carolina and 
the United States Navy divers, or they were possibly not 
aboard the vessel at the time of the sinking. The gravy 
bowl, although it bears the vessel's name and construc- 
tion date, is not included in the inventory because the 
history of its recovery is unknown. The staff at the 
Blockade Runner Museum, Carolina Beach, North Carolina 
claims that the bollard, hawse and vent pipes were recov- 
ered from the MODERN GREECE. The commode, gearbox, 
grapple hooks, and flanged pipe may have fallen into the 
site from boats fishing in the area or from the fishing 
pier that once jutted out over the site. 



Article : 

Recovered: 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 
Figure 173. 



(of 


base) 


7 


(of 


bitt) 


5 


(at 


top of bitt) 


7 


(of 


outer edge) 


30 



Bollard 
1 

Width 
Width 

Width (at top of bitt) 7 1/4" 
Length 
None 

A double posted ship's bollard. This is 
currently displayed at the Blockade Run- 
ner Museum, Carolina Beach, North Caro- 
lina. 
Fair 

Bollard 
Scale: 1/8 




180 Appendix III 



Article: 

Recovered 

Size: 

Markings : 



Description 



Condition: 



Bowl, gravy 
1 

Height (overall) 4 3/4" 

Width (from handle to pour spout) 7 l/2" 
The name MODERN GREECE frames the date 
1859 in a decorative display on the 
side. 

This pearlware gravy bowl is in one piece; 
the pitcher and saucer are attached. 
The black lettering on the side is pro- 
bably two decals. These appear to have 
been poorly applied, for their edges do 
not exactly meet making the design appear 
skewed. It presumably is from the MODERN 
GREECE as the decoration on the side 
suggests. The gravy bowl came to the 
Fort Fisher Museum from a local family 
who found it in their attic in among a 
batch of goods sent to them from western 
North Carolina. No information is 
available as to its recovery from the 
vessel, although its condition suggests 
that it may have been recovered either 
at the sinking or soon afterward. 
Good. The surface of the gravy boat is 
badly crazed. 



Figure 174. 



Bowl, gravy 
Scale: 1/2 




Appendix III 181 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size ' 
Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Commode, porcelain 
1 

Diameter 13 1/2" 
None 

A porcelain commode of questionable ori- 
gin was recovered from the MODERN GREECE 
site. It may have come from the vessel 
or the fishing pier. The latter option 
is more probable. 

Poor. All that remains are fragments 
that cannot be completely pieced to- 
gether. 



Figure 175 



Commode, porcelain 
Scale: 1/4 




Article : 
Recovered : 
Size : 

Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Gearbox 
1 

Length (overall) 17" 
Width (oferall) 10" 
None 

A gear box was recovered from the MODERN 
GREECE site; however, it is doubtful 
that it came off the vessel itself. It 
may have fallen from the fishing pier. 
It may also have been lost from a fish- 
ing boat that was using it as a snag 
anchor while fishing over the wreck. 
Good 



182 Appendix III 



Figure 176. 



Gearbox 
Scale: 1/5 




Article: 


Hooks , grapple 








Recovered : 


2 








Size: 


A -- Length 




23 


TT 




Width 


(from fluke tip to 
fluke tip) 


12 


Tt 




Diameter 


(of shaft) 


1 


3/4" 




B -- Length 




22 


TT 




Width 


(from fluke tip to 
fluke tip) 


15 


TT 




Diameter 


(of shaft at mid- 
dle) 


1 


1/8" 




Diameter 


(of ring) 


3 


TT 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



None 

The longer me 
which run thr 
pipe to the t 
form a shaft, 
would attach 
shorter metal 
wider flukes 
topped by an 
Fair. Both h 



tal hook (a) has thin flukes 
ough the inside of a hollow 
op where they overlap to 

The means whereby a rope 
is no longer visible. The 

hook (B) has longer and 
attached to a solid shaft 
eye and a ring, 
ooks are heavily concreted. 



Appendix III 183 



Figure 177. 



Hooks , grapple 
Scale: 1/6 



!'■ :i 





Article: 
Recovered 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



(outer) 
(inner) 
(inner) 
(base of U-shaped flange) 



78" 

12" 

9" 

16" 



Pipe, flanged 
1 

Length 
Diameter 
Diameter 
Width 
None 

This metal pipe flanged at both ends recov- 
ered from the MODERN GREECE site may ori- 
ginally have come either from the vessel 
itself or from the nearby pier. The 
flange at one end is round; whereas, the 
other is U-shaped. There are no visible 
mountings showing how, where, or to what 
it might have been attached. 
Fair. It is heavily concreted, and there 
are several holes completely through the 
metal. 



184 Appendix III 



Figure 178. 



Pipe, flanged 
Scale: l/l2 






p^V.JilV-'vT'W*''! 




^i;N.-.v.l^aaa^t^_^t\i.t,-V--fi1i'^i;BiYriBi'-t 




d'k^iii-.iMiihiyi>fC^ _ ^r::i;^-.;v;u.y.::jy)^ -^fe^'^f- 



Article : 
Recovered 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description 



hawse 



Pipe, 

1 

Length (overall) 

(overall) 

(overall) 

(of flange at top) 



15 

13 " 
7 1/V' 
3 " 



Condition 



Width 

Height 

Width 

None 

The Blockade Runner Museum, Carolina Beach, 

North Carolina, displays a brass hawse 

pipe purportedly from the MODERN GREECE. 

It is constructed of two identical oval 

flanged pipes seamed together back to 

back and supported at the four corners 

with tubular braces. 

Good 



Figure 179. 



Pipe, hawse 
Scale: 1/5 

X " " 

O Q 




"'-^-""" ■' 



MiAiXLui. 




iivpiviiii'ip uv>*«jm' 



J 







ti 



Sjrrv^^j-TiTijyrvTTfT.rf! n^$ 



r 



'^ 



I .: 



^i 






Top 



Side 



Appendix III 185 



Article: 
Recovered : 
Size : 



Markings : 
Description: 



Condition: 



Pipe, vent 

1 

Length 48 " 

Diameter (of pipe at outside) 12 3/4" 

Diameter (of pipe at inside) 12 " 

Diameter (of flange) 18 " 

None 

A brass vent pipe jagged at one end and 

with ten bolt holes at the other flanged 

end is displayed as purportedly from 

the MODERN GREECE by the Blockade Runner 

Museum, Carolina Beach, North Carolina. 

Good 



Figure 180. 




Pipe, vent 
Scale: 1/8 



y.i- •'" .^ ^-.' ' - ^^ ■. '?''' ?" ! '^' ^ V/ ' ^^': ' ^v• ' ■ '' ? ? -. 'y ' y^^T^T ^ ? ' .■. ' ! i j!'..'v.';. ' .?- ' 'y ' 



'Tjdini Vi • 'JiMi- i V.-.--I 




ADDENDUM 



Since the preservation of the cargo from the MODERN 
GREECE is a continuing project; new items, markings, and 
details appear from time to time. The following two arti- 
facts which would have appeared with the other tools and 
implements have come to light since that section was 
readied for publication. They are described and illus- 
trated below in the interest of thoroughness. 



Article: 
Recovered : 

Size: 



Markings : 
Description 



Condition: 



Figure 181 



Hatchet, claw (MG-K) 

Several fragments and basic outline in a 
concretion. 

Length (reconstructed) 6 " 

Width (reconstructed of blade) 3 3/4" 
Width (reconstructed of claw) 1 3/4" 
Thickness (reconstructed of claw) 7/8" 
None 

Fragments of a claw hatchet with its han- 
dle were recently found while cleaning a 
concreted bundle of hardware. The entire 
hatchet does not remain; however, the 
fragments are enough to allow a reconstruc- 
tion to be made. 

Poor. The majority of the artifact has 
been lost in cleaning, and it remains only 
in a very fragmentary state. 

Hatchet, claw 
Scale: 1/2 






Claw 




188 Addendum 



Article: 

Recovered: 

Size: 

Markings : 

Description: 

Condition: 
Remarks : 



Rasp, wood (MG-3I) 
1 

Length 12 1/4" 
Width 1 " 

Peace with a horizontally placed P before 
the trademark. 

A steel wood rasp with four sets of teeth. 
This rasp was found in a cluster of files. 
Good 

For an explanation of this marking see in- 
formation on C. HENRY , SHEFFIELD . 



Figure 182, 



Rasp, wood 
Scale: 1/2 







Side A 




Side B 



Figure 183. 



Detail maker ^s mark on rasp 
Scale: 2/1 






.<Q ^ <3 ^ <5 '^! ^ _^o f7 
<^ <3 <:}, <3 <5 <3 <l^^_.^-^p 



O 



<3 '0 b.12 -2_ ^ 



<i <) <] 

3 "Q 'Q -^ <3 
*Q ^ <3 ^<3 



g g q 'Q <3 



I ^<1 O <\ l> Pr 



r7 



P. 




C7 P c? 

17 O £7 17 

C? t? P 
P P P P 



GLOSSARY OF MANUFACTURER'S MARKINGS 



The majority of the information appearing in this 
section was gained from correspondence with various 
libraries in England. Efforts to trace the unidentified 
maker's markings are continuing at this time. Only sig- 
nificant markings denoting makers or methods or time of 
manufacture are dealt with here. Numbers and individual 
letters stamped on some metal objects are not identified 



J. ABBOTT ^ CO., GATESHEAD-ON-TYNE . 

This firm located at Gateshead-on-Tyne , England was in- 
volved in iron manufacturing, steam, gas, water and air 
engineering, brass and copper founding, plumbing, tin 
plate working, as well as in the manufacture of anchors, 
chains, and cables. 



BAGILLT WORKS, NEWTON KEATES e^ CO . , LIVERPOOL . 

The firm of Newton Keates ^ Co. was involved in copper 
and lead manufacturing at 3 Coopers Row and 28 King Street, 
Liverpool, England from 1847 until the end of the nine- 
teenth century. After 1878 they also functioned as agents 
for Daubuz and Co., tin smelters, Truro, Cornwall, England. 



BAGILLT WORKS, NEWTON LYON ^ CO . , LIVERPOOL . 

The firm of Newton Lyon & Co. , located at lA Coopers Row 
and 28 King Street, Liverpool, England was involved in 
copper and lead molting during the first half of the 
nineteenth century. 



T. BOLITHO b SONS, PENZANCE, CHYANDOUR . 

At this time the manufacturer denoted by this marking is 
unidentifiable. 



190 Glossary 
CAST STEEL . 

This signifies that the metal was cast and does not de- 
note a specific manufacturer. 

COOPER MAKER . 

At this time this marking is unidentifiable. 

FABR DE ANGOSTURA . 

A marking similar to this, FABR DE TOLEDO, is used to in- 
dicate knives made in Toledo, Spain. Research identifies 
no town of Angostura in Spain; however, there are towns 
so named in both Mexico and Venezuela. It seems unlikely 
that the metal for the bowie knife on which this appears 
was made in South America. If Angostura indicates as is 
suggested a town, it is possibly too small to appear on 
nineteenth century maps of Spain. 

THO. GREEN . 

At this time this marking is unidentifiable. 



C. HENRY, SHEFFIELD . 



A trade-mark directory of 1919 gives the name around the 
letters "CP" which are separated by a Maltese Cross. It 
is identified as the mark of Charles Henry, a joiners^ 
tool maker, of Rutland Road, Sheffield. In the same di- 
rectory a very similar mark is given with only the name 
"C. Parkin" replacing that of "Chas. Henry", and this 
second mark is that of Joseph Henry Peace, cutlers and 
edgetool manufacturers, of Button Lane, Sheffield. Char- 
les Henry himself is not listed individually in the street 
directories of the period. From this evidence it seems 
possible that he had some connection with the firm of 
J.H. Peace which was in business from c. 1890 to c. 1950. 
A similarly named firm, J. Peace and Co. Ltd., saw manu- 
facturers, were in business from c. 1850-1959, and for 
part of the time were at Rutland Road; however, no other 
connection between the firms is evidenced. 



Glossary 191 

WRIGHT HOLDSWORTH ^ CO . 

A partnership of this name did business during the 1860s. 
They were merchants and manufacturers of crinoline steel, 
busks, graining combs, antigrapholos springs, etc., cane 
knives, saws, engineers^ tools, etc. After 1862 the two 
partners appear to have gone into business individually. 



¥. ^ H. HUTCHINSON, SHEFFIELD . 

This firm was a manufacturer of surgical, dental, and vet- 
erinary instruments, scissors, lancets, stomach pumps, 
syringes, pill machines, etc. The firm was founded by 
William Hutchinson probably early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. The name changed from William Hutchinson and Son 
to William and Henry Hutchinson during the mid-1830s; 
therefore, the medical tools from the MODERN GREECE were 
definitely produced after this date. The firm is still 
in business at 43 Allen Street, Sheffield, England. 



W. LEES ^ SONS . 

At this time the manufacturer denoted by this marking is 
unidentifiable . 



LLODE NON . 

This marking is partially obliterated and cannot be iden- 
tified from the remaining portion given here. 



M__&_C. 

At this time the manufacturer denoted by this marking is 
unidentifiable. 



NON^i^XLL . 

This trade mark was assigned to William Broadhurst of Shef- 
field, England, by the Cutlers' Company of Hallamshire on 
December 7, 1838, and was used by him until well after the 
Civil War. The NON^'-XLL mark was eventually obtained by 



? 



192 Glossary 



the firm of Joseph Allen and Sons, cutlery manufacturers 
who used it on their products. The mark is most often 
seen on these. The mark itself translates to ''None Excel" 
and should not be confused with Wostenholm mark I'''XL which 
translates to ''I Excell". 



REGISTER LOCK . 

This is not a manufacturer's trade-mark but refers to the 
manner in which the jaws lock when set anywhere along the 
shaft. 



SHEAR STEEL . 

This denotes a steel produced by heating blister steel 
that has been sheared into short lengths to a high heat. 
It also refers to a steel making process whereby it is 
welded by hammering or rolling. It also refers to ham- 
mer finishing of steel under high heat. 



STRIKE FIRE . 

This denotes that the metal in the blade is of a superior 
quality and that the knife could be used with a flint to 
start a fire. 



JOHN K. TURNER ^ CO., SHEFFIELD . 

An edgetool manufacturer of this name conducted business 
in Sheffield, England from about 1830 to 1850; and a firm, 
Turner Brothers (John and Edward), tool manufacturers 
existed from 1860 to c. 1865. This marking possibly also 
refers specifically to John Kent Turner, who was a mer- 
chant and manufacturer from 1879 on as agent for the iron 
founders E. Pearson and Co. 



V (crown) R . 

This marking is not a manufacturer's marking but denotes 
that these knives were made during the reign of Queen 
Victoria (1837-1901). 



Glossary 193 

C. WALTERS e^ CO., GLOBE WORKS, SHEFFIELD . 

At this time the manufacturer denoted by this marking is 
unidentifiable. 



WARD ^ SONS, MAKERS, BIRMN . 

This marking appears on guns made by the Birmingham, Eng- 
land firm of Ward and Sons before and after 1925 to 1929 



WARRANTO. 

This denotes that the metal in the blade is superior qual- 
ity. 



YATES e^ CO., ASTON MANOR . 

This firm located at Aston Manor, England still manufac- 
turers hoes with a design and markings similar to those 
recovered from the MODERN GREECE. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ABELS, Robert 

1967 Classic Bowie Knives . Robert Abels, Inc. New 
York. 



ALBAUGH, William A., Ill 

1960 Confederate Edged Weapons . Harper & Brothers 
New York. 



ALBRIGHT, Alan B. 

1966 The Preservation of Water-logged Wood Speci- 
mens with Polyethylene Glycol. Curator , Vol. 
IX, No. 3, pp. 228-34. 



ANONYMOUS 

1952- Studies in Conservation . The Journal of the 
International Institute for Conservation of 
Historic and Artistic Work. London. 

1955- ICC Abstracts : Abstracts of Technical Litera - 
ture on Archaeology and the Fine Arts. The 
International Institute for Conservation of 
Historic and Artistic Works. London. 

1975 The Lore of Ships . Crescent Book. New York. 

BARKMAN, L. 

1965 The Preservation of the Wasa . State Marine 
History Museum. Stockholm. 



196 Bibliography 

BARRETT, John G. 

1963 The Civil War in North Carolina . University of 
North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill. 



BARTLESON, John D. , Jr. 

1972 Civil War Explosive Ordnance . U.S. Naval Ord- 
nance Station. Indian Head. 



BRADLEE, Francis B.C. 

1925 Blockade Running during the Civil War . The 
Essex Institute. Salem, Mass. 



CANFIELD, Eugene B. 

1960 Notes on Naval Ordnance of the American Civil 
War. American Ordnance Association. Wash- 
ington. 

CARSE, Robert 

1958 Blockade: The Civil War at Sea . Rinehard. New 
York. 

CHAPMAN, Charles F. 

1968 Piloting , Seamanship and Small Boat Handling 
(1969-1970 edition). American Book-Stratford 
Press, Inc. New York. 

CLARK, Walter (editor) 

1901 Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions 
from North Carolina in the Great War 1861 - 1865 
(5 vols.). State of North Carolina. Raleigh and 
Goldsboro. 



Bibliography 197 



COGGINS, Jack 



1962 Arms and Equipment of the Civil War . Doubleday. 
Garden City, New York. 

1964 Civil War Naval Ordnance — Weapons and Equipment. 
Civil War Times Illustrated . Vol* IV (November), 
pp. 16-20. 



COCHRAN, Hamilton 

1958 Blockade Runners of the Confederacy . The Bobbs- 
Merrill Company, Inc. Indianapolis. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY 

1971 Civil War Naval Chronology (6 Vols, in l). U.S. 
Government Printing. Washington, 



DICKINSON, A.G. 

1895 Blockade Running from Wilmington. Confederate 
Veteran , Vol. Ill (January - December), pp. 
361-362. 



DICKINSON, T. 

1904 Running the Blockade. Era, Vol. XIII (April), 
pp. 249-254. 



EDWARDS, W.B. 

1962 Civil War Guns . Stackpole Co. Harrisburg. 

GARDNER, Robert E. 

1963 Small Arms Makers, a Directory of Fabricators 
of Firearms, Edjged Weapons , Crossbows and Pole - 
arms. Crown Publishers. New York. 



198 Bibliography 
GULDBECK, Per E, 

1972 The Care of Historical Collections ; a Conserva - 
tion Handbook for the Nonspecialist « The Ameri- 
can Association for State and Local History. 
Nashville. 



HAMILTON, Donny L. 

1976 Conservation of Metal Objects From Underwater 
Sites ; a Study in Methods . Austin, Texas. 



HASSLER, Warren W. , Jr. 

1963 How the Confederacy Controlled Blockade Running, 
Civil War Times Illustrated , Vol. II (October), 
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1967-1968 The Blockade of Southern Confederacy: 1861- 
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1964 Artifacts . John Baker. London. 

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1968 The Blockade Runners . Dodd , Mead and Company. 
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Bibliography 199 

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200 Bibliography 
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202 Bibliography 



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INDEX 



J. ABBOTT & CO. , GATES- 
HEAD-ON-TYNE, 42, 189 

Anchor, large, 25 
small, 26 
recovery of, 22 

Armstrong, Commander 
James T. , 13 

Assembly, steam pressure, 28 
unidentified, 28 
valve, 29 

Axes , 83 



BAGILLT WORKS, NEWTON KEATES 
& CO. , LIVERPOOL, 59, 189 

BAGILLT WORKS, NEWTON LYON 
& CO., LIVERPOOL, 59, 189 

Bayonets, Enfield saber, 20, 
109 

Enfield, triangular, 20 

110 
markings on, 109 
recovery of, 20 

BEAUREGARD, 22 

Belmore, Commander B.J., 20 

BENDIGO, 22 

Binnacle, 30 

Bits, flat drill, 83 



Bitt, 31 



Block, large, 31 
small, 33 

Blockade Runner Museum, 23, 
179, 184, 185 

T. BOLITHO & SONS, PENZANCE- 
CHYANDOUR, 64, 65, 67, 189 

Bollard, 179 

Bolt, with nut, 149 

Bolt, twelve pounder Whit- 
worth, 49 

recovery of, 20 

Bottle, glass whiskey, 155 
markings on, 155 

Bourne, John T. , 4 

Bowl, gravy, 180 

markings on, 180 

Box, bilge strainer, 33 

Braine, Commander D.L. , 13 

Bullet, Enfield rifle, 50 
markings on, 50 



Caps, percussion, 51 

Capstan, bell-shaped, 34 
hour glass shaped, 35 
comparison of, 36 

CAST STEEL, 122, 125, 190 



206 Index 



Ceramic, fragments, 157 

Chain, stud, 37 

CIRCASSIAN, 5 

Chisels, cold, 85 
wood , 86 
markings on, 86, 87, 88, 

89 

Commode, porcelain, 181 
COOPER MAKER, 109, 190 
Counterbalance, 38 
Coupling, hose, 38 
C.S.S. NORTH CAROLINA, 18 
C.S.S. RALEIGH, 18, 19 

Davit, 39 

Depressors, tongue, 73 

Dies, pipe, 89 

markings on, 90 



Drills, ratchet, 91 



Electrochemical reduction, 
169, 170 

Electrolytic reduction, 170, 
171 

ELLA, 22 



FABR/DE/ANGOSTURA, 113, 190 



Files, 92 



recovery of, 21 

Flatirons , 133 

markings on, 133, 134, 135 

Forks, serving, 135 
table, 137 

Fort Gordon, 23 

Foster, Ma jor-General , J.G., 
18 

Fox, G.V. , 5 

Freeze-drying, treatment by, 
166 



Gauge, Carpenter's marking, 93 

Gearbox, 181 

Gear, worm, 40 

Glass fragments, 158 

Glisson, Commander O.S., 12, 13 

Goldsborough, L.M. , 4, 6, 7, 8, 
10, 12, 13 

Gouges, wood, 95 

markings on, 95 

THO. GREEN, 133-135, 190 
Halleck, Ma jor-General H.W. , 18 



Index 207 



Hammers, cross peen ma- 
chine, 96 

Handle, awl, 96 
rasp, 97 
surgical knife, 73 

Handsaws, 98 

recovery of, 21 

Hatchets, broad, 98 
claw, 187 

HEBE, 22 

HELEN MARIE, 21 

C. HENRY, SHEFFIELD, 86, 88, 
89, 190, 191 

Hinges, 149 

Hoes, 99 

markings on, 99, 100, 101 

WRIGHT HOLDSWORTH & CO., 86, 
87, 89, 191 

Hooks, grapple, 182 

¥. & H. HUTCHINSON, SHEFFIELD, 
78-80, 191 



Impregnation, treatment by, 
165 

Ingots , lead , 59 

markings on, 59, 60, 61, 

62, 63 
tin, 64 

markings on, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 69 

IRON AGE, 22 



JONQUIL, 20 



Keg, ten gallon, 158 

Kits, surgeon^s medical, 74 

Knives, amputation, 75 
bowie, 110-120 

hilts of, German silver, 
112, 114, 115, 116 
gutta-percha, 112 
horn, 110, 111 
one piece, 110-116 
stag, 110, 113-119 
two piece, 110, 117- 

120 
wood, 120 
markings on, 110, 113, 

119, 190, 191 
points, clipped, 110, 
112-120 

spear, 110-118 
farrier's, 101 

markings on, 101, 102, 
191 
table, 139-141 

markings on, 139-141, 
190, 192, 193 



Ladles, lead, 102 
Lamb, Colonel William, 14 
Lee, Rear Admiral S.P., 13, 14 
W. LEES If SONS, 133-134, 191 
Lewis , E.L. , 20 



LLODE NON, 119, 191 



Lloyd 's Register , 4 
Lock, chest, 151 



208 Index 

M & C, 95, 191 

Mariner's Museum, 23 

McCook, Lieutenant A.S., 6, 

7, 8, 10, 12 

Mold, Enfield bullet, 51 
markings on, 51 
recovery of, 21 



Nails, horseshoe, 152 

Naval Historical Display- 
Center, 23 

Naval Ordnance School, 19 

New Hanover Museum, 23 

NON^:^XLL, 101, 102, 191 

N.C. Confederate Centennial 
Organization, 21 



Pikes, 103 

Pipe, flanged, 179, 183 
hawse, 179, 184 
lead, 40 
vent, 179, 185 

Pistol, Unwin and Rodgers 
knife, 53 

Plastic embedding, 172 

Plate, earthenware, 142 

Polyethylene-glycol, 166 

Pocketknives, 122-127 

markings on, 122, 124- 
127, 190, 192, 193 

Porthole, 42 

markings on, 42 

Portlight, 43 

Probes, surgeon's, 75 



Padlock, 153 

Pans, frying, 141 

Parker, W.A. , 6, 7, 9, 10, 
12 

Pearson & Co. (also Zachar- 
iah C. Pearson & Co.), 4 

Pehain, Lieutenant G.A. , 20 



PHANTOM, 22 



Picks, 121 

recovery of, 21 



Rack, towel, 44 

Rasp, wood, 188 

markings on, 188 

RANGER, 22 

Rectifier, 171 

REGISTER LOCK, 108, 192 

Richardson's, Stockton, Eng- 
land , 3 

Rifle, Tower Enfield, 54 
bullets , 

analysis of, 175 
cases of, 55 



Index 209 



fragments of, 55 
lock, 57 

markings on, 54, 56, 57 
nipple protector, 57 
recovery of, 20 
shipping plug, 57 
straps for, 56 



Sandblasting, treatment by, 
172 

Saws , bone , 76 

Scalpels, folding, 77 
pocket, 78 

Scarifiers, 78 

markings on, 78, 79 

Scissors, 143 

Scott, Commander G.H. , 13 

Screwdriver, 103 

Screws, tourniquet, 79 
markings on, 79, 80 

Seddon, James A,, 15 

SHEAR STEEL, 139-141, 192 

Sheath, bowie knife, 128 
Enfield saber bayonet, 
129 

Sheets, tin plated steel, 70 
recovery of, 20 

Shoe, 161 

Shot, twelve pounder Whit- 
worth case, 58 



Smithsonian, 21, 23 



Snips, bone, 80 

Sonic cleaning, treatment by, 
173 

Southport, N.C. , 23 

Spoleshaves , 104 

Spoons, serving, 146 

STRIKE FIRE, 122, 126, 127, 
192 



Tablespoon, 146 

Tampico, 5 

Taps, pipe, 104 

markings on, 104, 105 

Teaspoons, 148 

Threaders, pipe, 106 

Throats, bowie knife sheath, 
129 

Tips, bowie knife sheath, 130 
analysis of composition, 
177 

JOHN K. TURNER, SHEFFIELD, 87, 
88, 89, 122, 124, 139, 192 



U.S.S. CAMBRIDGE, 6, 7, 10, 12 
U.S.S. MARATANZA, 13, 15 
U.S.S. MINNESOTA, 14 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



210 Index 




3 3091 00702 0134 



U.S.S. MONTICELLO, 10, 13 
U.S.S. MOUNT VERNON, 12 
U.S.S. PETREL, 22 

U.S.S. STARS AND STRIPES, 6, 

7, 8, 10 

U.S.S. STATE OF GEORGIA, 13 



Wire, spool of, 70 
recovery of, 22 

Woodrow Wilson 's Birthplace, 
23 

Wrenches, crescent, 106 
hammer, 107 
monkey, 108 



V & R, 139, 192 

Valve, check, 45 

markings on, 45 
spigot, 46 

markings on, 46 

VENUS, 22 



X-ray, 164 



YATES If CO., ASTON MANOR, 99, 
100, 101, 193 



C. WALTERS & CO., GLOBE 

WORKS, SHEFFIELD, 139, 193 

WARD b SONS MAKERS, BIRMN. , 
54, 56, 57, 193 

WARRANTD, 122, 125, 193 



WAYNE R. 20 



Welles, Giddeon, 2, 4, 5 

Wheel, ship^s, 47 

Whiting, Major-General W.H.C., 
15 

Wilmington Journal . 5, 10, 
12, 16 



Windlass, 48 



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